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Predicting Ecosystem Response from Pollution in Baltic Archipelago areas using Mass-balance Modelling
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Akvatisk miljöanalys)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Baltic archipelago areas have high nature values despite being polluted from various antrophogenic activities within the Baltic Sea catchment area and from long-range transport of airborne substances. The discovery of environmental problems in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s led to countermeasures that gradually gave results in reducing the toxic pollution, e.g. from PCBs. Today, much of the environmental management is focused on reducing the effects of eutrophication. There is a demand from society on science to develop strategies that can direct remedial actions so that the cost-effectiveness is maximised. This work focuses on how mass-balance models can be used to understand how coastal ecosystems are controlled by abiotic processes and to predict the response to changes in loading of different substances. Advection, sedimentation and burial are examples of general transport processes that are regulated by morphometrical characteristics, e.g. size, form, effective fetch and topographical openness. This is why different coastal areas have different sensitivity to loading of pollutants.

A comparison of six phosphorus and chlorophyll models of different complexity showed that the model performance was not improved with more state variables of total phosphorus (TP) than two water and two sediment compartments. Modelling chlorophyll as a separate state variable did not improve the results for individual values compared to a simple regression against total phosphorus in surface water. Field investigations of the phosphorus content in accumulation sediments along the coast of Svealand showed a distribution pattern that probably is related to differences in the redox status. The average content of mobile phosphorus was much higher than previously found in offshore Baltic sediments indicating that sediments may play an important role for the phosphorus turnover in Baltic archipelago areas.

A one-year field study to measure the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water, sediments and fish during different seasons was carried out in Kallrigafjärden Bay. The collected data set was used to test a mass-balance model for PCCD/F-turnover. It was possible to reproduce the concentrations of different PCDD/F-congeners with high accuracy using a general model approach, including one water compartment and two sediment compartments, indicating that the applied model has the necessary qualifications for successful predictions of PCDD/F-turnover in Baltic coastal areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Universitetstryckeriet , 2011. , 54 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 806
Keyword [en]
Baltic Sea, archipelagos, aquatic ecosystems mass-balance modelling, sediment-water dynamics, phosphorus, dioxins, PCDD/Fs
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-144120ISBN: 978-91-554-8012-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-144120DiVA: diva2:395238
Public defence
2011-04-08, Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 736Available from: 2011-03-18 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2011-05-04
List of papers
1. Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago
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2010 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 39, no 7, 486-495 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved benthic conditions compared to the 1990s were found during benthic investigations, including sediment and benthic macrofauna in the inner Stockholm archipelago during 2008. In the 1990s, these areas were dominated by black and laminated surface sediments and very sparse fauna. A clear relationship was found when comparing sediment status with the benthic macrofauna. Reduced surface sediment and impoverished macroinvertebrate community was only found at one sampling station representing an enclosed part of the inner archipelago, whereas the other seven stations, with depths ranging from 20 to 50 m, had oxidized   surface sediments and considerable biomasses of benthic macrofauna   (6-65 g m(-2)) dominated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta. An extrapolation of the results shows that, within the investigated area, the coverage of reduced surface sediments had decreased from approximately 17% in the late 1990s to 4% in 2008.

Keyword
Hypoxia, Laminated sediments, Benthic macrofauna, Nutrient budgets, Stockholm archipelago
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133639 (URN)10.1007/s13280-010-0079-3 (DOI)000282223600005 ()
Available from: 2010-11-11 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved
2. The optimal size of dynamic phosphorus models for baltic coastal areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The optimal size of dynamic phosphorus models for baltic coastal areas
2008 (English)In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, Vol. 216, no 3-4, 303-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

6 models for phosphorus and chlorophyll of different complexity were applied in 11 Swedish coastal areas. The number of state variables varied between 1 in the simplest model to 7 in the most complex. The results were compared for total phosphorus and chlorophyll in surface water compartments. The results imply that for the studied water bodies, models containing separate state variables for phosphorus in surface water and deep water are superior to models treating the water column as a completely mixed entity. The results do not justify separation of phosphorus into dissolved and particulate fractions. Modeling chlorophyll as a separate state variable did not improve the results for individual values compared to a simple regression against total phosphorus in surface water. Unless detailed descriptions or predictions of chlorophyll dynamics are required, modeling eutrophication in coastal areas may thus be considered as a matter of total phosphorus in two water compartments plus sediments.

National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120141 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.04.018 (DOI)000258557400005 ()
Available from: 2010-03-09 Created: 2010-03-09 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
3. Forms and variability of phosphorus in the Baltic Sea-a challenge to ecosystem modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forms and variability of phosphorus in the Baltic Sea-a challenge to ecosystem modeling
2010 (English)In: Air, Soil and Water Research, Vol. 3, 79-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases of nutrient elements is a key factor in aquatic ecosystem modeling since partitioning regulates the availability to demand ratio of the nutrient in question. This is seldom taken into account in environmental monitoring programs. In this paper, the occurrence and variability of particulate and dissolved phosphorus were studied in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. The particulate fraction (PF) of total phosphorus (TP) concentration in coastal waters from some forty stations along the east coast of Sweden was, on average, 0.33. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was a poor predictor of total dissolved phosphorus (DP) representing only 20%–30% of this fraction. Sensitivity analyses showed that the value of PF had a significant impact on modeled predictions of TP concentration in the water on a Baltic sub-basin scale, whereas an applied coastal model was insensitive to variations in PF. Hence, this study encourages further sampling efforts on the partitioning of phosphorus in the open waters of the Baltic Sea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Libertas Academia Ltd., 2010
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133957 (URN)
Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2011-10-20Bibliographically approved
4. Estimating the amount of mobile phosphorus in Baltic coastal soft sediments of central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the amount of mobile phosphorus in Baltic coastal soft sediments of central Sweden
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2012 (English)In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, Vol. 17, no 6, 425-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new dataset based on 102 sediment cores was examined to estimate the amount of phosphorus (P) that will eventually be released to the water column from the Baltic coastal sediments along the Swedish coast between Öregrund and Oxelösund. Total P (P tot) concentration in the surface sediments varied between 840 and 7100 μg g -1 dry weight (dw) with an average of 1650 μg g -1 dw. In deep sediments, the P tot concentration was around 1000 μg g -1 with small variation. The difference between surface concentration and the stable, deeper, concentration represents P to be released, i.e. the mobile P. Pools of mobile P varied between 1.5 and 18.2 g m -2. Correlations between surface P tot concentrations and amounts of mobile P were strong (r 2 = 0.88). We estimate the amount of mobile P in the coastal sediments of the investigated region to be between 1000 and 4000 tonnes. Assuming a turnover time of the mobile P between three and ten years gives an average annual P release of 100-1300 tonnes yr -1.

National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-144116 (URN)000311772500002 ()
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2013-01-08Bibliographically approved
5. Dioxin levels and congener patterns in water, sediment and fish from a coastal estuary of the Baltic Sea 
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dioxin levels and congener patterns in water, sediment and fish from a coastal estuary of the Baltic Sea 
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2009 (English)In: Organohalogen compounds: Volume 71, 2009, 810-815 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An ecosystem approach was taken in order to study the turnover of PCDD/Fs in Kallrigafjärden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea. Samples from water within and flowing into the system, sediments and fish were collected, analysed on their content of 17 PCDD/Fs congeners and compared with each other in order to increase the understanding of present background levels of dioxins in Baltic Sea coastal ecosystems. In the water phase, PCDD/Fs were measured both as total levels using a specially designed high-volume filtration system and as the freely dissolved fraction using passive equilibrium samplers. Our results indicate that the PCDD/F contamination of the studied area was relatively low, which was anticipated since there are no known point sources in the vicinity of the area. There was congruence when PCDD/F levels from water, sediments and fish were compared with each other although the congener profiles varied considerably between the studied matrices. The congener profile for fish showed similarities with the equivalent profile for the freely dissolved water concentration. The temporal variability within the studied matrices, keeping in mind that the measured levels were low, was relatively high, which highlights the importance of not basing environmental assessments of dioxin contamination on too small datasets.

Series
, Organohalogen compounds, ISSN 1026-4892 ; 71
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120142 (URN)
Conference
Dioxin 2009 - 29th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, 23-28 August 2009, Beijing, China
Available from: 2010-03-09 Created: 2010-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved
6. PCDD/F mass balance in a coastal estuary of the Baltic Sea: a field study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PCDD/F mass balance in a coastal estuary of the Baltic Sea: a field study
2009 (English)In: Organohalogen compounds: Volume 71, 2009, 664-669 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Series
, Organohalogen compounds, ISSN 1026-4892 ; 71
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120143 (URN)
Conference
Dioxin 2009 - 29th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, 23-28 August 2009, Beijing, China
Available from: 2010-03-09 Created: 2010-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved
7. Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of a mass-balance model to predict PCDD/F turnover in a Baltic coastal estuary
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2010 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 88, no 2, 209-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A dynamical, process-based mass-balance model was applied to quantify the transports of polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to, within and from the Kallrigafjarden Bay, a coastal estuary in the Baltic Sea, and to predict the PCDD/F levels in the water and sediments of the bay. Before the modelling, a one-year sampling programme was implemented in 2007-2008 to measure the flows of PCDD/Fs in tributaries entering the system, the fluxes from the adjacent sea and the levels in water, sediment and fish within the estuary. The collected data set was used as input data to the model and for validation purposes.

The model was originally developed and tested for suspended particulate matter and phosphorus in Baltic coastal areas. In this work, it was run monthly without any tuning of the original model variables. The simulation results compared favourably with the field measurements of levels of 15 PCDD/F congeners in the water and sediments of the bay. The dominating fluxes of PCDD/Fs were the exchange with the adjacent sea, followed by riverine input, atmospheric deposition and sediment burial.

Although the sediment-water exchange was of minor importance for the overall mass-balance due to the rapid water turnover and limited areas favourable for the long-term deposition of fine sedimentary matter, sensitivity analyses indicated that the model's predictive capability was improved with about 5% by taking the sediment burial and release into account.

National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133640 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2010.04.001 (DOI)000279089400005 ()
Available from: 2010-11-11 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved

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