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Soil and stream water chemistry in a boreal catchment - interactions, influences of dissolved organic matter and effects of wood ash application
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two small bordering catchments in Bispgården, Central Sweden, wereinvestigated in regard to soil solution and stream water chemistry during the frostfree seasons of 2003-2007. Both catchments were drained by first order streams,Fanbergsbäcken and Gråbergsbäcken, and in Fanbergsbäckens catchment anextensive investigation of the soil and soil solution chemistry was conducted bylysimeter and centrifugation sampling. The area of intensive soil solutioninvestigation was situated in a slope towards a stream incorporating a rechargearea, with podzolic soil, and a discharge area close to the stream with an arenosolsoil. Samples were continuously taken in both the recharge- and the discharge areaof the slope, and stream water was sampled in the streams of both catchments. Themain variables of interest of the study were the interactions, the influence ofdissolved organic carbon and the effects of wood ash application to soil solutionand stream water.The natural variations and the interactions between soil solution and streamwater were monitored during 2003-2004. In soil solution, most of the investigatedsubstances tended to increase during the growing season, due to weathering andmicrobial degradation of biota. Ca, Mg, Al and Fe were highly associated todissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout the catchment. The low molecularfraction of DOC seemed to have a higher impact on the soil processes in therecharge area, while high molecular DOC was more important for transport ofcations in the discharge area and the stream water.The concentration of different substances in the two streams differedsignificantly, even though the catchments were similar in size, shape andforestation. The seasonal patterns of most of the substances measured weresignificantly correlated between the streams, however. Cations and pH correlatedwell with DOC and flow. The flow pattern driven by precipitation seems to be thedriver of the stream water chemistry.Wood ash was applied at a dosage of 3 ton/ha to one of the catchments in theautumn of 2004, to investigate the initial effects on the soil solution- and streamwater chemistry. WAA is recommended by the Swedish Forest Agency tocounteract acidification in soil and runoff that may be caused by an intensivebiomass harvesting. The impact of the WAA was studied during 2005-2006.Compared to the control temporarily higher concentrations of K, Ca and SO4 wereobserved in the soil solution of the ashed area. In the stream water the effects of theWAA were easier to distinguish due to higher sampling frequency. The strongesteffect was seen for K, but increases in the stream water were also noted for DOC,Ca, Mg, Si, Cl and malonate. No increase in pH could be statistically verifiedhowever, and overall the initial effects of the WAA seem mild.

Abstract [sv]

Två angränsande avrinningsområden i Bispgården i centrala Sverigeundersöktes under den snöfria säsongen 2003-2006. Båda avrinningsområdenadränerades av första ordningens bäckar och i det ena, Fanbergsbäckensavrinningsområde, gjordes en omfattande undersökning av mark och markvattenkemin.Markvatten provtogs genom centrifugering och med lysimetrar.Provtagningen gjordes i inströmningsområdet där jordmånen var en typiskpodzol samt närmare bäcken, i utströmningsområdet, där jordmånen var enarenosol. Bäckvatten provtogs i båda avrinningsområdena. Interaktioner mellanmark, markvatten och bäckvatten undersöktes med särskilt fokus på inverkan avorganiskt kol samt påverkan av askåterföring.De naturliga variationerna i markkemin samt interaktionerna mellan mark- ochbäck vatten undersöktes 2003-2004. I markvatten ökade merparten av de studeradeämnena under provtagningssäsongen beroende av ökad vittring och recirkulationav biota och fallförna. Ca, Al och Fe var i stor utsträckning associerade till löstorganiskt kol (DOC). Den lågmolekylära fraktionen av DOC hade en störreinverkan på markprocesserna i inströmningsområdet, medan den högmolekyläradelen var viktigare för transport av katjoner i utströmningsområdet samt ibäckvattnet.Koncentrationsnivåerna av olika substanser i bäckarna uppvisade skillnadertrots avrinningsområdenas yttre likheter med avseende på storlek, form ochbeskogning. Trots de kvantitativa skillnaderna erhölls emellertid liknandesäsongsvariationer i koncentrationerna, vilket indikerade att kemin i huvudsakstyrdes av mängden DOC som i sin tur berodde av avrinningen som drevs avnederbörden. Höga halter av Ca, Mg, Al och Fe återfanns associerade tillhögmolekylärt DOC i bäckvattnet i en utsträckning som inte rapporterats tidigare.På hösten 2004 spreds 3 ton aska/ha till Fanbergsbäckens avrinningsområde föratt undersöka de initiala effekterna på mark- och bäckvatten kemin. Askåterföringbör ske minst en gång per omloppstid vid helträdsavverkning, i enlighet medSkogsstyrelsens rekommendationer, främst för att motverka försurning i mark ochavrinnande vatten som antas uppstå vid intensivt uttag av biomassa. De initialaeffekterna av askåterföringen på mark- och bäckvattnets kemi studerades under2005-2006 och Gråbergsbäcken kunde användas som obehandlad kontroll vidundersökning av vattenkemin i Fanbergsbäcken. I undersökningen av markvattenviåterfanns stora säsongsvariationer, vilket gjorde det svårt att urskilja eventuellaeffekter av askåterföringen. Tillfälligt högre värden av K, Ca och SO4 återfannsdock i det askade området i jämförelse med kontrollområdet. På grund av högreprovtagningsfrekvens i bäckvattnet var det lättare att påvisa förändringar ibäckvatten kemin. Framförallt märktes en signifikant ökning av K jämfört medkontrollbäcken. Sådana ökningar, om än inte lika markanta återfanns också förDOC, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl och malonat. En tendens till ökat pH kunde observeras, mendenna kunde inte verifieras statistiskt. De initiala effekterna av askåterföringen varsåledes till synes milda, och den eftertraktade pH-effekten erhölls ej i dennaundersökning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2010.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 99
Keywords [en]
Boreal forest, catchment studies, dissolved organic carbon, soil solution
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12998ISBN: 978-91-86694-04-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-12998DiVA, id: diva2:387713
Public defence
2010-11-26, 13:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-01-14 Created: 2011-01-14 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Analysis of low molecular mass organic acids in natural waters by ion exclusion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of low molecular mass organic acids in natural waters by ion exclusion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
2007 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1176, no 1-2, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sensitive and selective method for the analysis of aliphatic low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) in natural waters is presented. The method is based on separation with ion exclusion chromatography and detection with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The extra selectivity gained by applying MS/MS allows for a minimum of sample preparation and the use of a sub-optimal mobile phase regarding chromatographic resolution. Instead the mobile phase, comprising aqueous formic acid With methanol as organic modifier, was mainly optimized for maximum sensitivity and long term MS stability. Detection limits for malonic, fumaric, maleic, succinic, citraconic, glutaric, malic, alpha-ketoglutaric, tartaric, shikimic, trans-aconitic, cis-aconitic, isocitric and citric acid were in the range 1-50 nM, while the detection limits for pyruvic, oxalic and lactic acid were around 250 nM for an injection volume of 100 mu L. Due to their metal-chelating properties, these LMMOAs are all considered to affect the bioavailability of metals and to be involved in soil forming processes. It is thus of interest to be able to monitor their presence in natural waters, and the method developed within this work was successfully applied for the analysis of LMMOAs in soil solution and stream water samples.

Keywords
chromatography, mass spectrometry, organic acids, soil solution, stream water
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3639 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2007.10.064 (DOI)000251848100011 ()2-s2.0-36549056005 (Scopus ID)5315 (Local ID)5315 (Archive number)5315 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment I: Dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment I: Dynamics
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 144, no 1/2, p. 256-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil solution and stream water chemistry were studied during two years in a catchment in Bispgården in central Sweden (63°07′N, 16°70′E). Soil samples and soil solution were collected in a slope at two distances (10 and 80 m) from a stream. The aims were to examine interactions between recharge (podzol) and discharge (arenosol) areas and to investigate the relations between soil solution and stream water chemistry. The parent material was similar within the catchment, but the content of C and N were higher in the discharge area most likely due to the difference in hydrological conditions compared to the recharge area. Exchangeable cations and base saturation were higher in the discharge area than in the recharge area, which may be due to the higher content of C. The concentrations in soil solution of H, DOC, NO3, SO4, Al, Si, Ca and K charge area compared to the recharge area which was probably caused by transportation of elements in soil and retention due to the increased content of C. During snow melt, the concentrations in soil solution of DOC, SO4, Al, Si, Ca and K were low due to dilution and low biological activity. The concentrations were then increasing during the seasons as an effect of biological activity and mineral weathering. NO3 concentration in soil solution was found in higher concentrations during snow melting and was then diminishing during summer likely as a result of biological uptake. After a dry period followed by an intensive rain in August 2003, the stream water chemistry was markedly altered for a few days. The concentrations of H, DOC SO4, Al and Ca were increased and the concentration of Si was decreased in the stream water. It therefore appeared that the stream water mirrored the upper soil horizons in the discharge area during high flows, while reflecting the lower soil horizons and ground water during low flows.

Keywords
Catchment, soil solution
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3614 (URN)10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.11.026 (DOI)000254473000024 ()2-s2.0-39549097317 (Scopus ID)5600 (Local ID)5600 (Archive number)5600 (OAI)
Note
VR-EcologyAvailable from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment II: Influence of organic matter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment II: Influence of organic matter
2008 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 144, no 2008, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Differences between recharge and discharge areas in soil forming processes and nutrient conditions were observed in an earlier study of a catchment area in central Sweden (63°07′N, 16°70′E; Vestin, J.L.K., Norström, S.H., Bylund, D., Mellander, P-E., Lundström, U.S., submitted for publication to Geoderma. Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment, I Dynamics.). To further examine the factors that determine the soil and stream water properties in the catchment area, the present study focused on the organic dynamics and the association of cations to different size fractions of organic matter. Six sampling plots were established in each of the recharge and discharge areas, respectively, with samples taken in June 2004. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and cation concentrations in the soil solution and stream water were determined. In the recharge area, low molecular mass (LMM) organics played an important role in transportation of several cations through the soil profile, inducing the podzolisation process by associating with Al and Fe. In the discharge area close to the stream, high molecular mass (HMM) organics appeared to play a crucial role in transportation of cations. Here the majority of recovered cations were associated with HMM organic matter, inhibiting the podzolisation process. The total concentration of C and DOC was higher than in the recharge area, and the concentration of cations increased with depth in the mineral soil. In the stream water, as in the discharge area soil solution, all carboxylic groups were associated to cations. Both Al and Fe were completely associated with the HMM DOC fraction, which indicated a rapid turnover of LMM DOC in stream water. Thus we conclude that DOC plays an important role in soil forming processes, and that its different size fractions have large effects on the transportation of elements in different soils and in stream water.

Keywords
Stream water, DOC, LMWOA, Ca, Al, Fe
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4531 (URN)10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.11.027 (DOI)000254473000025 ()2-s2.0-39549106689 (Scopus ID)5601 (Local ID)5601 (Archive number)5601 (OAI)
Note
VR-EcologyAvailable from: 2008-12-08 Created: 2008-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Influences of dissolved organic carbon on stream water chemistry in two forested catchments in central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of dissolved organic carbon on stream water chemistry in two forested catchments in central Sweden
2010 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 101, no 1-3, p. 229-241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stream water chemistry in two headwater streams draining two small, adjacent catchments in Bispgården, central Sweden was studied during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. The two catchments closely resemble each other in regard to size, shape and drainage density, with the major difference found in the area of wetland lining the streambeds. The emphasis of the study was to investigate the stream water chemistry of these closely resembling catchments, regarding the quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its influence on the concentrations of di- and trivalent cations. The streams showed significant differences in the content and size distribution of DOC and in the distribution of cations between the different size fractions. For both streams the high flow events induced by precipitation influenced the chemistry of the streams through increase of organic matter and its associated cations. Fanbergsbäcken, with relatively low pH and high DOC concentration, had a greater amount of high molecular mass (HMM) DOC to which approximately 75% of Al and Fe and about 50% of Ca and Mg were associated. Gråbergsbäcken, with a higher pH and lower DOC level, had approximately 65% of Al, 40% of Fe and 30% of Ca and Mg associated to its HMM DOC fraction. Sixteen different low molecular mass organic acids were found in the stream water, of which oxalic and lactic acid were present in the highest concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2010
Keywords
catchment, dissolved organic carbon, low molecular mass organic acids, metals, size fraction, stream water
National Category
Other Basic Medicine Analytical Chemistry Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12457 (URN)10.1007/s10533-010-9469-7 (DOI)000285096700018 ()2-s2.0-78650004473 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior, Jun 29-Jul 03, 2009, Helsinki, Finland
Note
6th International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior, Jun 29-Jul 03, 2009, Helsinki, FinlandAvailable from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-12-07 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
5. Initial effects of wood ash application on the stream water chemistry in a boreal catchment in central Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial effects of wood ash application on the stream water chemistry in a boreal catchment in central Sweden
2011 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 221, no 1-4, p. 123-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to increased whole-tree harvesting in Swedish forestry, concern has been raised that a depletion of nutrients in forest soil will arise. The Swedish Forest Agency recommends compensation fertilization with wood ash to ensure that unwanted effects are avoided in the nutrient balance of the forest soil and in the quality of surface water. In this investigation, the chemistry of two first-order streams, of which one was subjected to a catchment scale treatment with 3 tonnes of self-hardened wood ash/ha in the fall of 2004, was monitored during 2003-2006. Large seasonal variations in stream water chemistry made changes due to ash application difficult to detect, but evaluating the ash treatment effects through comparison of the stream water of the treated catchment with the reference was possible via statistical tools such as randomized intervention analysis in combination with cumulative sum charts. The wood ash application did not yield any significant effect on the pH in the stream water and hence did not affect the bicarbonate system. However, dissolved organic carbon increased, a previously unreported effect of WAA, bringing about an increase of organic anions in the stream water. The wood ash application also induced significant increases for Ca, Mg, K, Si, Cl and malonate, of which K was most prominent. Although significant, the changes induced by the wood ash application were all small compared to the seasonal variations. As a tool to counteract acidification of surface waters, WAA seems to have limited initial effects

Keywords
Base cations; Catchment; CUSUM; Malonate; Stream water; Wood ash
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12994 (URN)10.1007/s11270-011-0775-z (DOI)000296696000010 ()2-s2.0-80053580896 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-14 Created: 2011-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
6. Initial effects of wood ash application to soil and soil solution chemistry in a small, boreal watershed
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial effects of wood ash application to soil and soil solution chemistry in a small, boreal watershed
2012 (English)In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 187, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the conception that whole tree harvesting leads to an impoverishment of forest soils wood ash application is recommended, with the foremost benefits being increased pH in soil and subsequent surface waters, and recycling of nutrients from the wood ash.

In this investigation a small boreal catchment in central Sweden was studied for two years before and two years after treatment with the maximum recommended dose, 3 tonnes/ha, of crushed, self-hardened wood ash. The sampling area was situated in a slope towards a stream, to include the effect on both recharge- and discharge areas with different soil constitutions. The soil solution chemistry, exchangeable pool of cations and potential heavy metal accumulation in berries were studied. Temporary increases in soil solution concentration were found for K in the recharge area and Ca and SO4 in the discharge area when comparing ashed and control areas. No change in exchangeable cations was observed during the study period, and no increase of heavy metals in bilberries did occur. These small changes in the constitution of the soil solution do not suggest wood ash application as a method to improve soil quality in an initial phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Base cations, catchment, dissolved organic carbon, soil solution, wood ash
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12995 (URN)10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.04.011 (DOI)000306050600011 ()2-s2.0-84861332246 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FORE
Available from: 2011-01-14 Created: 2011-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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