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Enabling autonomous envionmental measurement systems with low-power wireless sensor networks
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8382-0359
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless Sensor Networks appear as a technology, which provides the basisfor a broad field of applications, drawing interest in various areas. On theone hand, they appear to allow the next step in computer networks, buildinglarge collections of simple objects, exchanging information with respect totheir environment or their own state. On the other hand, their ability tosense and communicate without a fixed physical infrastructure makes theman attractive technology to be used for measurement systems.Although the interest inWireless Sensor Network research is increasing,and new concepts and applications are being demonstrated, several fundamentalissues remain unsolved. While many of these issues do not requireto be solved for proof-of-concept designs, they are important issues to beaddressed when referring to the long-term operation of these systems. Oneof these issues is the system’s lifetime, which relates to the lifetime of thenodes, upon which the system is composed.This thesis focuses on node lifetime extension based on energy management.While some constraints and results might hold true from a moregeneral perspective, the main application target involves environmental measurementsystems based onWireless Sensor Networks. Lifetime extensionpossibilities, which are the result of application characteristics, by (i) reducingenergy consumption and (ii) utilizing energy harvesting are to be presented.For energy consumption, we show howprecise task scheduling due to nodesynchronization, combined with methods such as duty cycling and powerdomains, can optimize the overall energy use. With reference to the energysupply, the focus lies on solar-based solutions with special attentionplaced on their feasibility at locations with limited solar radiation. Furtherdimensioning of these systems is addressed.It will be shown, that for the presented application scenarios, near-perpetualnode lifetime can be obtained. This is achieved by focusing on efficient resourceusage and by means of a carefully designed energy supply.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2011. , p. 94
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 54
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12982Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-86694-14-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-12982DiVA, id: diva2:387560
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-01-14 Created: 2011-01-14 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Adaptive synchronization for duty-cycling in environmental wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive synchronization for duty-cycling in environmental wireless sensor networks
2009 (English)In: ISSNIP 2009 - Proceedings of 2009 5th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 49-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In wireless sensor networks, as energy limited systems, communication is a costly activity. For this reason duty cycling approaches are commonly used, because they can limit the overall power consumption of a sensor node tremendously by shutting down communication sub-circuits whenever they are not used. However, for efficient power reduction nodes have to know the exact times when they are supposed to communicate in the network. Synchronization can be used to accomplish this and comes with additional features such as the possibility of cooperative sampling at a given time. In this paper we propose a synchronization protocol that introduces low overhead due to broadcast master-node synchronization, while still accomplishing synchronization accuracies in the order of 100 μs. The protocol is intended for periodic data collection applications that are common tasks in environmental monitoring systems. Since changes in environmental conditions can have a large effect on the synchronization behavior, we further present a temperature compensation algorithm for the proposed synchronization protocol that allows stable usage of synchronization in a wide range of temperatures. Measurement results are taken from implementing the protocol on sensor node platforms and show the real world performance of the presented methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11706 (URN)10.1109/ISSNIP.2009.5416772 (DOI)000283472800009 ()2-s2.0-77950922374 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-3517-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2009 5th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, ISSNIP 2009; Melbourne; 7 December 2009 through 10 December 2009; Category number CFP09842-CDR; Code 79914
Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Enabling battery-less wireless sensor operation using solar energy harvesting at locations with limited solar radiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling battery-less wireless sensor operation using solar energy harvesting at locations with limited solar radiation
2010 (English)In: Proceedings - 4th International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, SENSORCOMM 2010, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 602-608Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Environmental monitoring applications demand wireless sensor networks to operate over a long period of time. Although energy consumption of these systems has been tremendously reduced, lifetime of sensor nodes is still limited by the capacity and lifetime of batteries used as energy sources. Energy harvesting, and in outdoor deployments particular, solar energy harvesting becomes a suitable way of powering wireless sensor nodes as their power consumption decreases. In this paper we address the feasibility of battery-less operation of wireless sensor nodes using solar energy harvesting at locations where the amount of solar radiation is severely limited and seasonal variations are large. We present two circuit architectures optimized for low energy leakage and evaluate their performance based on data gathered in a deployment during winter in Sundsvall, Sweden. We show that both architectures allow operation of sensor nodes even in the darkest period of the year. Furthermore comparisons between the two architecture designs are provided. © 2010 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
Keywords
Energy harvesting, Energy sources, Environmental monitoring, Sensor-node lifetime, Solar radiation, Wireless sensor networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12202 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.95 (DOI)2-s2.0-77957949859 (Scopus ID)978-076954096-2 (ISBN)
Note

Art. No.: 5558096

Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
3. A Method for Dimensioning Micro-Scale Solar Energy HarvestingSystems Based on Energy Level Simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method for Dimensioning Micro-Scale Solar Energy HarvestingSystems Based on Energy Level Simulations
2010 (English)In: Proceedings - IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2010, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 372-379Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Solar energy harvesting gains more and more attention in the field of wireless sensor networks. In situations, where these sensor systems are deployed outdoors, powering sensor nodes by solar energy becomes a suitable alternative to the traditional way of battery power supplies. Since solar energy, opposed to batteries, can be considered as an inexhaustible energy source, scavenging this source allows longer system lifetimes and brings wireless sensor networks closer to be an autonomous system with perpetual lifetime. Despite the possibility of designing and constructing these harvesting system, dimensioning becomes a crucial task to fit implemented components to application and load system demands. In this paper we present a way of dimensioning solar harvesting systems based on simulation. Method and implementation of component and system models are described on the basis of an example architecture that has been used in prior work. Furthermore we evaluate the model in comparison to deployment of the same architecture and show the suitability of using the simulation as a support to optimize choices for system parameters

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12252 (URN)10.1109/EUC.2010.62 (DOI)2-s2.0-79951799488 (Scopus ID)978-076954322-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/IFIP 8th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2010; Hong Kong; 11 December 2010 through 13 December 2010
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-11-19 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved

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