Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Amyloid β-protein, Cystatin C and Cathepsin B as Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is suggested that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is caused by an imbalance between production, degradation and clearance of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein. This imbalance leads to aggregation of Aβ and tau proteins and neurodegeneration in the brain. Today there is increasing evidence that the balance between the protease cathepsin B and the protease inhibitor cystatin C affects the tendency for Aβ to aggregate. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate Aβ, cystatin C and cathepsin B levels in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in relation to the risk of AD.

Studies I & II were based on the re-examinations of participants, at ages 70 and 77, in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based prospective study initiated in 1970 (participants then being 50 years of age). In ULSAM, low plasma Aβ1-40 (Study I) and low serum cystatin C levels (Study II) were associated with a higher risk of AD. Studies III & IV were based on a cross-sectional sample of people with AD, mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, recruited at three Swedish Memory Disorder units: Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, and Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm. In Study III, CSF cystatin C levels were positively correlated with both Aβ1-42 and tau levels. In Study IV, individuals with AD had higher mean plasma cathepsin B levels than healthy controls.

In conclusion, low plasma Aβ1-40 and low serum cystatin C levels may precede clinically manifest AD in elderly men, cystatin C levels are positively correlated with Aβ1-42 and tau levels in CSF, and mean plasma cathepsin B levels are higher in people with AD compared to healthy controls. In addition to Aβ1-42 and tau levels in CSF, Aβ1-40, cystatin C and cathepsin B levels in blood may reflect the risk of AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , p. 64
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 626
Keywords [en]
Alzheimer´s disease, amyloid β-protein, cystatin C, cathepsin B, biomarkers, risk factors, epidemiology
National Category
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132175ISBN: 978-91-554-7956-5 (print)OAI:, id: diva2:360959
Public defence
2011-01-20, Enghoffsalen, Ing. 50, bv, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)