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Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3014-5609
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 3, 1372-1380 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phasor-based wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development, and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. These applications are either local applications using data from one or a few phasor measurement units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system's dependence on high-performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of research performed in order to determine the requirements of transmission system operators on the performance of WAMC systems in general as well as the characteristics of communication delays incurred in centralized systems that utilize multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. This paper presents a summary of requirements from transmission system operators with regards to a specific set of applications and simulations of communication networks with a special focus on centralized applications. The results of the simulations indicate that the configuration of central nodes in centralized WAMC systems needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2011. Vol. 26, no 3, 1372-1380 p.
Keyword [en]
Data quality, performance, phasor-measurement-unit (PMU)-based applications, wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems power system communication
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25160DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2106805ISI: 000292167800008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79959706192OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-25160DiVA: diva2:356181
Note

QC 20101011 Updated from submitted to published

Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wide area monitoring and control systems - application communication requirements and simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wide area monitoring and control systems - application communication requirements and simulation
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today’s electrical transmission & distribution systems, are facing a number of challenges related to changing environmental, technical and business factors. Among these factors are, increased environmental restrictions leading to higher share of production from renewable and uncontrollable sources as well as local environmental concerns regarding construction of new transmission and distribution lines. The re-regulation of the electricity market has created a dynamic environment in which multiple organizations have to coordinate and cooperate in the operation and control of the power system. Finally, the high rate of devel-opment within the ICT field is creating many new opportunities for power system opera-tion and control, thanks to introduction of new technologies for measurement, communi-cation and automation.

As a result of these factors, Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been proposed. WAMC systems utilize new ICT based technologies to offer more accurate and timely data on the state of the power system. WAMC systems utilize Phasor Measure-ment Units (PMUs) that have higher data rates and are time synchronised using, GPS satel-lites. This allows synchronized observation of the dynamics of the power system, making it possible to manage the system at a more efficient and responsive level and apply wide area control and protection schemes. The success WAMC systems, on the other hand, are largely dependent on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure that would support them.

This thesis investigates the requirements on, and suitability of the ICT systems that support WAMC systems. This was done by identifying WAMC applications and the elicitation of their requirements. Furthermore, a set of simulation projects were carried out to determine the communication system characteristics such as delay and the impact of this delay on the WAMC system.

This thesis has several contributions. First, it provides summary and analysis of WAMC application priorities and requirements in the Nordic region. Secondly it provides simula-tion based comparison and evaluation of communication paradigms for WAMC systems. The research documented in this thesis addresses these paradigms by providing a compari-son and evaluation through simulation. Thirdly, the thesis provides insight to the possible sources of delay in WAMC architecture and the impact of these delays on data quality specifically data incompleteness. This provides insight on what applications are important to practitioners and what is the expected performance of these applications, as seen from the power system control and operation point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. viii, 117 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2009:045
Keyword
Wide Area Monitoring and Control systems, Phasor Measurements Units, Power System Communication, SCADA systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11316 (URN)
Presentation
2009-11-06, Seminarierummet, KTH, Osquldas väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-10-22 Created: 2009-10-22 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved
2. Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications running on top of them are heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the underlying non-functional quality of the ICT systems.

From an ICT perspective, the real-time nature of WAMC systems makes them susceptible to variations in the quality of the supporting ICT systems. The non-functional qualities studied as part of this research are performance, interoperability and cyber security. To analyze the performance of WAMC ICT systems, WAMC applications were identified, and their requirements were elicited. Furthermore, simulation models capturing typical utility communication infrastructure architectures were implemented. The simulation studies were carried out to identify and characterize the latency in these systems and its impact on data quality in terms of the data loss.

While performance is a major and desirable quality, other non-functional qualities such as interoperability and cyber security have a significant impact on the usefulness of the sys-tem. To analyze these non-functional qualities, an enterprise architecture (EA) based framework for the modeling and analysis of interoperability and cyber security, specialized for WAMC systems, is proposed. The framework also captures the impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC systems. Finally, a prototype WAMC system was imple-mented to allow the validation of the proposed EA based framework. The prototype is based on existing and adopted open-source frameworks and libraries.

The research described in this thesis makes several contributions. The work is a systematic approach for the analysis of the non-functional quality of WAMC ICT systems as a basis for establishing the suitability of ICT system architectures to support WAMC applications. This analysis is accomplished by first analyzing the impact of communication architectures for WAMC systems on the latency. Second, the impact of these latencies on the data quali-ty, specifically data currency (end to end delay of the phasor measurements) and data in-completeness (i.e., the percentage of phasor measurements lost in the communication), is analyzed. The research also provides a framework for interoperability and cyber security analysis based on a probabilistic Monte Carlo enterprise architecture method. Additionally, the framework captures the possible impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC data flows. A final result of the research is a test bed where WAMC applications can be deployed and ICT architectures tested in a controlled but realistic environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. ix, 45 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2013:006
Keyword
Power System Communication, Wide Area Monitoring and Control systems, Phasor Measurements Units, Power System Communication, SCADA systems.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118443 (URN)978-91-7501-636-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-21, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130218

Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2013-02-18Bibliographically approved

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