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Ion Beam Analysis of First Wall Materials Exposed to Plasma in Fusion Devices
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One major step needed for fusion to become a reliable energy source is the development of materials for the extreme conditions (high temperature, radioactivity and erosion) caused by hot plasmas. The main goal of the present study is to use and optimise ion beam methods (lateral resolution and sensitivity) to characterise the distribution of hydrogen isotopes that act as fuel. Materials from the test reactors JET (Joint European Torus), TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research) and Tore Supra have been investigated.

Deuterium, beryllium and carbon were measured by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). To ensure high 3D spatial resolution a nuclear microbeam (spot size <10 µm) was used with 3He and 28Si beams. The release of hydrogen caused by the primary ion beam was monitored and accounted for.

Large variations in surface (top 10 µm) deuterium concentrations in carbon fibre composites (CFC) from Tore Supra and TEXTOR was found, pointing out the importance of small pits and local fibre structure in understanding fuel retention. At deeper depths into the CFC limiter tiles from Tore Supra, deuterium rich bands were observed confirming the correlation between the internal material structure and fuel storage in the bulk.

Sample cross sections from thick deposits on the JET divertor showed elemental distributions that were dominantly laminar although more complex structures also were observed. Depth profiles of this kind elucidate the plasma-wall interaction and material erosion/deposition processes in the reactor vessel.

The information gained in this thesis will improve the knowledge of first wall material for the next generation fusion reactors, concerning the fuel retention and the lifetime of the plasma facing materials which is important for safety as well as economical reasons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , p. 61
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 752
Keywords [en]
Ion beam analysis, Microbeam, Plasma wall interaction, Deuterium, Beryllium, Carbon fibre composites, Divertor, Nuclear reaction analysis, Helium-3
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Ion Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128875ISBN: 978-91-554-7846-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-128875DiVA, id: diva2:331958
Public defence
2010-09-10, room 4101, Ångströmlaboratoiet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-08-19 Created: 2010-07-29 Last updated: 2010-08-19
List of papers
1. Measurement of hydrogen isotopes by nuclear microprobe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of hydrogen isotopes by nuclear microprobe
2008 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 062029-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Subatomic Physics Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Ion Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111090 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/100/6/062029 (DOI)000275655200225 ()
Available from: 2009-12-03 Created: 2009-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
2. Mapping of hydrogen isotopes with a scanning nuclear microprobe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping of hydrogen isotopes with a scanning nuclear microprobe
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2008 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 10, p. 2429-2432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elastic recoil detection analysis using heavy ions with a scanning nuclear microprobe was applied to determine the content of hydrogen isotopes in carbon material facing fusion plasma in the JET fusion reactor. The hydrogen and deuterium concentrations in re-deposited material were obtained by mapping a cross sectional cut of a wall sample. De-trapping and hydrogen release caused by the primary ion beam were investigated. For both the deuterium and hydrogen concentration a drop of similar to 75% was observed from an extrapolated initial value to a final steady state region. A procedure was used to determine the initial concentration. In this way a mapping of the initial deuterium concentration could be obtained.

National Category
Physical Sciences Subatomic Physics Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Ion Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-111087 (URN)10.1016/j.nimb.2008.03.059 (DOI)000257185600075 ()
Available from: 2009-12-03 Created: 2009-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
3. Ion beam micro analysis of deposits at tokamak divertor surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion beam micro analysis of deposits at tokamak divertor surfaces
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2010 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1838-1841Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010
Keywords
Nuclear reaction analysis; Micro-beam; Deuterium; Beryllium
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128871 (URN)10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.025 (DOI)000278702300032 ()
Available from: 2010-07-29 Created: 2010-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Nuclear reaction analysis with ion microbeam of cross sections of surface layers deposited in tokamak divertor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nuclear reaction analysis with ion microbeam of cross sections of surface layers deposited in tokamak divertor
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 362, no 2-3, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ion micro beam analysis has been applied to the investigation of plasma deposited layers covering the divertor tiles in the JET tokamak. Since the layers are about 100 μm thick they are too thick to be completely investigated by ordinary ion beam analysis. Cross sections of the layers were prepared by cutting and polishing. Elemental depth profiles were determined from the two dimensional images that could be derived by nuclear reaction analysis and resonant backscattering spectrometry, using ion beams focused to a few μm spot size. A combination of analysis methods are shown, which allow measurements of the concentration profiles of carbon, beryllium, deuterium, oxygen and stainless steel components at levels of a few percent, with an accuracy better than 10%.

Keywords
Divertor, Nuclear fusion reactor, Tokamak, Plasma deposition, Cross section (collision), Nuclear reaction
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-26270 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.01.046 (DOI)000246895400013 ()
Available from: 2007-02-15 Created: 2007-02-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. Cross sections of deposited layers investigated by micro nuclear reaction analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross sections of deposited layers investigated by micro nuclear reaction analysis
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128874 (URN)
Available from: 2010-07-29 Created: 2010-07-29 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
6. Nuclear micro-beam analysis of deuterium distribution in carbon fibre composites for controlled fusion devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nuclear micro-beam analysis of deuterium distribution in carbon fibre composites for controlled fusion devices
2010 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1833-1837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Probes made of carbon fibre composite NB41 were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak and in a simulator of plasma-wall interactions, PISCES. The aim was to assess the deuterium retention and its lateral and depth distribution. The analysis was performed by means of D(He-3, p)4He and C-12(He-3, p)14N nuclear reactions analysis using a standard (1 mm spot) and micro-beam (20 mu m resolution). The measurements have revealed non uniform distribution of deuterium atoms in micro-regions: differences by a factor of 3 between the maximum and minimum deuterium concentrations. The differences were associated with the orientation and type of fibres for samples exposed in PICSES. For surface structure in the erosion zone of samples exposed to a tokamak plasma the micro-regions were more complex. Depth profiling has indicated migration of fuel into the bulk of materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010
Keywords
Nuclear reaction analysis, Micro-beam, Deuterium, Tokamak, Carbon composites
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128872 (URN)10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.024 (DOI)000278702300031 ()
Available from: 2010-07-29 Created: 2010-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. An Overview of Nuclear Micro beam Analysis of Surface and Bulk Fuel Retention in Carbon-Fibre Composites from Tore Supra
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Overview of Nuclear Micro beam Analysis of Surface and Bulk Fuel Retention in Carbon-Fibre Composites from Tore Supra
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 451, no 1, p. s764-s764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface and bulk retention of deuterium in tiles of the pump limiter from Tore Supra was examined with nuclear reaction analysis using both standard and micro-beam techniques. The aim was to determine the variations in the content and distribution of fuel species in carbon-fibre composites. On plasma-facing surfaces from the deposition zone, the D content reaches 2.5 × 1019 cm−2 in about 8 μm thick top layer, but lateral differences reach even more than one order of magnitude. This is also measured in the erosion zone: 6.6 × 1017 cm−2 to 7.7 × 1018 cm−2 D atoms. Bulk content was examined on cross-sections opened by fracturing the tiles. Fuel is detected up to the depth of 1–1.5 mm beneath the plasma-facing surface in tiles from both the erosion and deposition zones. It occurs in bands, about 100 μm wide and several mm long, roughly parallel to the original plasma-facing surface.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128873 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.10.044 (DOI)000298128100173 ()
Available from: 2010-07-29 Created: 2010-07-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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