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Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents: Psychosocial and Genetic influences
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. (Oreland Lars)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis is based on four studies focusing on alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents, and therewith related psychosocial and genetic factors.

One main objective was to study the reasons for drinking alcohol among different population - representative samples of adolescents in order to identify motives for drinking. Relationships between these drinking motives, alcohol consumption, and alcohol - related problems were also investigated. Three motives emerged from this study: social - enhancement, coping and dominance. The association with alcohol consumption and alcohol - related problems was positive for social - enhancement and coping motives, but negative for the dominance motive.

A significant heritability of alcohol use disorders has been demonstrated by family, adoption and twin studies. Environmental influences have also been acknowledged to play an important role in the development of alcohol use disorders. Moreover, the interaction between genetic and environmental factors is likely to influence the risk - resilience for alcohol use disorders. In view of this knowledge, plausible candidate polymorphisms were considered in gene - environment interaction models. An effect of the genetic polymorphisms was only present when a G x E model was considered. A genetic variant of the clock gene Period2, in an interaction with sleep problems, was studied in relation to alcohol consumption among adolescents. High alcohol consumption was associated with the AA genotype of the PER2 SNP10870 polymorphism, in an interaction with several and frequent sleep problems, among adolescent boys. A genetic variant in the opioid µ receptor 1 gene, in an interaction with alcohol consumption, was studied in relation to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were predicted by the G allele of the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism, in an interaction with high alcohol consumption, among adolescent girls. Additionally, the PER2 SNP10870 and the OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms were studied in a sample of severely alcoholic females.

Furthermore, alcohol consumption was assessed by using different instruments, such as biomarkers and surveys. Comparisons were carried out to identify the most suitable method to assess alcohol consumption among adolescents. Questionnaire and interview seemed more suitable tools than biomarkers in this regard.The results eventually support the importance of psychosocial and genetic influences, and their interaction effect on alcohol consumption among adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , p. 80
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 572
Keywords [en]
adolescents, alcohol, biomarkers, depression, drinking motives, FAEE, gene environment interaction, interview, OPRM1, PER2, PEth, questionnaire, sleep
Research subject
Neuroscience
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-123486ISBN: 978-91-554-7832-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-123486DiVA, id: diva2:317130
Public defence
2010-06-10, Aulan, Gamla Vårdskolan, Entrance 21, Central Hospital, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-05-20 Created: 2010-04-27 Last updated: 2010-05-20
List of papers
1.
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2. The clock gene PER2 and sleep problems: association with alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The clock gene PER2 and sleep problems: association with alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents
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2010 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with sleep problems, which are often linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. Previous studies have separately examined the effects of mutations in the clock gene PER2 on alcohol consumption and sleep problems. Here we hypothesized that an allelic variation in the PER2 gene is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among adolescents. METHODS: The Survey of Adolescent Life and Health in Västmanland 2006, a Swedish county, including 1254 students 17-18 years old, was used as a population-representative sample of adolescents. We investigated the PER2 Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 10870 (A/G) in the cohort together with an assessment of alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT-C questionnaire, and sleep problems using a survey consisting of 18 items. Furthermore, we carried out an exploratory analysis on the PER2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 10870 polymorphism in a group of severely alcoholic females. RESULTS: We found a significant association of the SNP 10870 in adolescent boys, where the genotype AA, in the presence of several and frequent sleep problems, was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Among adolescent girls, only sleep problems were related to alcohol consumption. A non-significant trend was observed among the severely alcoholic females, with the G allele being over-represented in the severely alcoholic females group in comparision to the control females. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that PER2 gene variation is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among Swedish adolescent boys.

Keywords
Adolescents, alcohol, AUDIT, clock gene, PER2, sleep problems
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-123490 (URN)10.3109/03009731003597127 (DOI)000275061700006 ()20187847 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
4. Adolescent alcohol consumption: Biomarkers PEth and FAEE in relation to interview and questionnaire data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent alcohol consumption: Biomarkers PEth and FAEE in relation to interview and questionnaire data
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 797-804Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE

 The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption.

METHOD

 The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively.

RESULTS

 High alcohol consumption was underreported in the questionnaire compared with the interviews. PEth and FAEE analyses weakly confirmed the self-reports, and the results of the two biochemical tests did not overlap. The PEth blood test was the most specific but the least sensitive, whereas the FAEE hair test revealed low specificity and an overrepresentation of positive results in girls.

CONCLUSIONS

The expected higher self-report of high alcohol consumption by interview rather than by questionnaire was confirmed partly because of the influence of a bogus pipeline procedure. The absence of overlap between PEth and FAEE results and their poor agreement with self-reports suggested that biomarkers are unsuitable as screening tools for alcohol consumption in adolescents.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Pharmacology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-124706 (URN)000269979800019 ()19737505 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-05-05 Created: 2010-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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