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Pheromonal Mediated Behaviour and Endocrine Responses in Salmonids: The impact of Cypermethrin, Copper, and Glyphosate
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effects of cypermethrin, copper and glyphosate on the endocrine system and subsequent response to female pheromones were investigated in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr.  Responses measured were the amount of strippable milt, blood plasma levels of both an androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)) and a progestin (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20b-P)), and behavioural changes. This was done in a two phased investigation where parr were exposed to one of the following via ambient water: 1) 0.1 or 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin, 2) 10 or 100 μg L-1 copper (Cu2+), or 3) 150 μg L-1 glyphosate for a 96 hour period.  Phase one was a priming experiment exposing parr to a treatment followed by priming with PGF or ovarian fluid (OVF). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were, also exposed to glyphosate during phase I. The second phase was centered on behavioural observations.  Exposed parr were placed in a 35,000 L stream aquarium together with two ovulated females and four anadromous males. After the experiments a blood sample was taken, milt volumes measured and testes weighed.  The plasma was analyzed for 11-KT and 17,20b-P concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Results from phase I-priming: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 17,20b-P and 11-KT; Copper exposure lowered milt volumes; glyphosate exposure lowered 11-KT in salmon and raised 17,20b-P in trout.  Results from phase II-behaviour: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 11-KT, milt and spawning behaviour; copper exposure lowered spawning behaviour and raised 11-KT; Glyphosate exposure lowered 11KT; continuous cypermethrin exposure raised 17,20b-P, 11-KT and gave a tendency towards increased aggression. It is concluded that low concentration exposure to the compounds examined can induce negative effects on male salmonid endocrine systems, either through a disruption in the olfactory system or through a direct effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , 52 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 730
Keyword [en]
Cypermethrin, copper, glyphosate, behaviour, hormones, pheromones, olfaction, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17, 20β-P), reproduction
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Environmental Toxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121848ISBN: 978-91-554-7772-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-121848DiVA: diva2:306804
Public defence
2010-05-07, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Extern doktorand från Södertörns högskolaAvailable from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-03-31 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Effects of a pyrthroid pesticide on endocrine reponses to female odour and reproductive behaviour in male parr of brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a pyrthroid pesticide on endocrine reponses to female odour and reproductive behaviour in male parr of brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 81, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reproductive behaviour of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from an anadromous stock was studied in a large stream water aquarium. Four adult males and two ovulated females were placed in the aquarium together with eight mature male parr. Four of the parr were exposed during the previous 4 days to two concentrations (0.1 or 1.0 μg l−1) of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin (a disrupter of olfactory receptor function) and four of the parr to the solvent ethanol. The behaviour of all fish was followed for 24 h and then blood and milt was collected. Exposure to the higher concentration of cypermethrin disturbed the reproductive behaviour of the parr. They displayed fewer courting events, spent less time near the nesting females and had lower volumes of strippable milt. They also had significantly lower amounts of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in the blood plasma than the control group. The higher cypermethrin group also had significantly lower levels of all these variables than the lower cypermethrin group, apart from strippable milt that showed no significant differences between two groups. No significant differences in non-reproductive behaviours were observed between any of the groups. In the control fish, there were significant positive correlations between (a) the number of courting events and the amount of time spent near the female, (b) blood plasma levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) and time spent near the female and (c) plasma levels of 17,20β-P and the number of courting events. Further, in control fish, higher plasma levels of 17,20β-P were observed in parr interacting with a female compared to those with no female contacts. A priming experiment confirmed a previous study that cypermethrin damages olfactory reception. Parr exposed to cypermethrin had significantly lower blood plasma levels of 17,20β-P and 11-KT than control males after exposure to ovarian fluid and urine (known to contain reproductive priming pheromones). When ethanol-exposed males were exposed to ovarian fluid and urine they had significantly higher plasma levels of 17,20β-P compared to those exposed to water only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Cypermethrin, steroid, sex hormone, courting, spawning, Pheromones
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Toxicology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122368 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.10.011 (DOI)000244173200001 ()
Projects
Paper I
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2011-02-09Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of copper on olfactory-mediated endocrine responses and reproductive behaviour in mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to conspecific females
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of copper on olfactory-mediated endocrine responses and reproductive behaviour in mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to conspecific females
2010 (English)In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 76, no 4, 800-817 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, the effects of copper (CuSO4) on the ability of mature male brown trout Salmo trutta parr to detect and react both physiologically and behaviourally to female pheromones were studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first experiment, priming effects of the female pheromone prostaglandin F (PGF) were evaluated by determining the amount of milt produced and the blood plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) after the PGF exposure. In the second experiment, male parr were placed in a large stream tank together with a group of adult males and ovulated females and their individual behaviours were recorded. In the priming experiment, the amount of expressible milt was significantly lower, less than half, in groups exposed during 4 days to 10 or 100 µg l−1 copper compared with control parr only exposed to water. No significant differences were observed in plasma levels of 11-KT and 17, 20β-P. During the behavioural experiment, exposed parr spent less time with the female and had a lower number of courting events. Blood plasma levels of 11-KT were, however, significantly higher in the group exposed to 100 µg l−1 copper compared with the control group. Furthermore, the exposed group spent significantly less time swimming upstream than did the control group. The present study demonstrates that exposure to copper affects reproductive behaviours and endocrinology of S. trutta male parr.

Keyword
hormones, olfaction, pheromones, pollutants, reproduction
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135856 (URN)10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02519.x (DOI)000275466200003 ()
Note
Corrigendum in: Journal of Fish Biology, 2010, vol. 76, issue 7, p. 1877, doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02687.x Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of glyphosate on olfactory mediated endorcine responses to female odours and reproductive behaviour in male brown trout (slamo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of glyphosate on olfactory mediated endorcine responses to female odours and reproductive behaviour in male brown trout (slamo trutta)
(English)In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keyword
Glyphosate, behviour, pheromones, olfaction, reproduction
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122370 (URN)
Projects
Paper III
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2010-04-09
4. Prolonged cypermthrin exposure increases sex steroid plasma hormone levels in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr in spawning groups
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prolonged cypermthrin exposure increases sex steroid plasma hormone levels in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr in spawning groups
(English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keyword
Cypermethirn, behaviour, hormones, phermones, olfaction, reproduction
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122371 (URN)
Projects
Paper IV
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2010-04-09

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