Studies of Intracellular Transport and Anticancer Drug Action by Functional Genomics in Yeast
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis describes the use of functional genomics screens in yeast to study anticancer drug action and intracellular transport. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a particularly useful model system for global drug screens, due to the availability of knockout mutants for all yeast genes.
A complete collection of yeast deletion mutants was screened for sensitivity to monensin, a drug that affects intracellular transport. A total of 63 deletion mutants were recovered, and most of them were in genes involved in transport beyond the Golgi. Surprisingly, none of the V-ATPase subunits were identified. Further analysis showed that a V-ATPase mutant interacts synthetically with many of the monensin-sensitive mutants. This suggests that monensin may act by interfering with the maintenance of an acidic pH in the late secretory pathway.
The second part of the thesis concerns identification of the underlying causes for susceptibility and resistance to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In a functional genomics screen for 5-FU sensitivity, 138 mutants were identified. Mutants affecting tRNA modifications were particularly sensitive to 5-FU. The cytotoxic effect of 5-FU is strongly enhanced in these mutants at higher temperature, which suggests that tRNAs are destabilized in the presence of 5-FU. Consistent with this, higher temperatures also potentiate the effect of 5-FU on wild type yeast cells.
In a plasmid screen, five genes were found to confer resistance to 5-FU when overexpressed. Two of these genes, CPA1 and CPA2 encode the two subunits of the arginine-specific carbamoyl-phosphate synthase. The three other genes, HMS1, YAE1 and YJL055W are partially dependent on CPA1 and CPA2 for their effects on 5-FU resistance. The specific incorporation of [14C]5-FU into tRNA is diminished in all overexpressor strains, which suggest that they may affect the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2008. , 56 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 402
5-fluorouracil, tRNA modifications, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carbamoyl phosphate synthase, V-ATPase
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9408ISBN: 978-91-554-7360-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-9408DiVA: diva2:172959
C10:301, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala
Blomberg, Anders, Professor
Ronne, Hans, Professor
List of papers