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Wafer Bonding for Spaceflight Applications: Processing and Characterisation
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bonding techniques intended for assembling space microsystems are studied in this work. One of the largest problems in bonding pre-processed semiconductor wafers are the severe process restrictions imposed by material compatibility issues. Plasma processes have shown to be good for sensitive materials integration why the influence of different plasma parameters on the bondability of wafers is particularly studied. Conventional wet chemical and field-assisted methods are also examined. The resulting bond quality is assessed in terms of mechanical strength, homogeneity, and yield.

The effect of spaceflight environment on the reliability of wafer bonds is also investigated. Both high and low temperature annealed bonds are found to be very robust. Effects observed are that low temperature bonds are reinforced by thermal cycling in vacuum and that high temperature bonds degrade slightly by low dose γ irradiation.

Adhesion quantification is important for all bonding. Development of accurate quantification methods is considered necessary since most methods at hand are limited. This work includes the development of the blister test method. Former test structures are improved to be more practical to work with and to yield low experimental scatter. A physical stress model for the improved structure is suggested with which successful predictions of fracture for different test specimen configurations are made. The blister test method is used throughout this work to assess the strength of wafer bonds. The physics background and modelling of other common test methods are also thoroughly analysed. The methods’ practical capabilities and limitations are commented; origin and mitigation of measurement errors are discussed. It is shown that all methods can be significantly improved by small means.

Weibull statistics is introduced as a tool to characterise wafer bonds. This method is suitable to use in brittle materials design as the inherent variability in strength can be properly accounted for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2005. , p. vi + 33
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 70
Keywords [en]
Engineering physics, wafer bonding, oxygen plasma, wet chemical, anodic bonding, gamma irradiation, proton irradiation, temperature cycling, vibration, shock, Weibull, adhesion quantification, double cantilever beam, tensile, chevron, blister
Keywords [sv]
Teknisk fysik
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5853ISBN: 91-554-6289-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-5853DiVA, id: diva2:166646
Public defence
2005-06-09, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30
Opponent
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Weibull fracture probability for silicon wafer bond evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weibull fracture probability for silicon wafer bond evaluation
2000 In: Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 147, no 12, p. 4683-4687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93224 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Oxygen plasma wafer bonding evaluated by the Weibull fracture probability method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen plasma wafer bonding evaluated by the Weibull fracture probability method
2001 In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 11, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93225 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
3. Mechanical reliability of silicon microsystem fusion bonds in spaceflight environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical reliability of silicon microsystem fusion bonds in spaceflight environment
Show others...
Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93226 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
4. Weibull fracture probability for characterization of the anodic bond process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weibull fracture probability for characterization of the anodic bond process
2002 In: Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 99, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93227 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
5. Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding
In: Materials Science and Engineering R: ReportsArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93228 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
6. Effect of spaceflight environment on the strength of wafer bonds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of spaceflight environment on the strength of wafer bonds
In: Microelectronics ReliabilityArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93229 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
7. Radial variations in bond strength for plasma bonded oxidised silicon wafers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radial variations in bond strength for plasma bonded oxidised silicon wafers
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93230 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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