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Silicon and Quartz Microengineering: Processing and Characterisation
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microengineering has developed a broad range of production techniques to reduce size, increase throughput, and reduce cost of electrical and mechanical devices. The miniaturisation has also entailed entirely new opportunities.

In this work, a piezoresistive silicon sensor measuring mechanical deformation has been designed and fabricated with the help of microengineering. Due to the large variety of used processes, this device can serve as a survey of techniques in this field. Four basic process categories are recognised: additive, subtractive, modifying, and joining methods.

The last category, joining methods, has previously been the least investigated, especially when it comes to compatibility with the other categories. The adaptability of wet chemical etching to established silicon wafer bonding technique has been investigated. Further, phenomena related to oxygen plasma pre-treatment for direct bonding has been investigated by blister bond adhesion tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

Wafer bonding has been adapted to monocrystalline quartz. For wet chemical pre-treatment, characteristics specific for quartz raise obstacles. Problems with limited allowable annealing temperature, low permeability of water released in the bond at annealing, and electrostatic bonding of particles to the quartz surface, have been studied and overcome. The influence of internal bond interfaces on resonators has been investigated.

Chemical polishing of quartz by ammonium bifluoride has been experimentally investigated at high temperatures and concentrations. Chemometrical methods were used to search for optimum conditions giving the lowest surface roughness. These extreme conditions showed no extra advantages.

Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding have been comprehensively reviewed, and augmentations have been suggested. The improved techniques’ usefulness for three areas of use has been forecasted: general understanding, bonding scheme optimisation, and quality control. It was shown that the quality of measurements of all commonly used methods could be dramatically improved by small means.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Fasta tillståndets elektronik , 2005. , p. 34
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 69
Keywords [en]
Engineering physics, silicon, quartz, microengineering, microstructure, MEMS, wafer bonding, direct bonding, adhesion quantification
Keywords [sv]
Teknisk fysik
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5852ISBN: 91-554-6288-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-5852DiVA, id: diva2:166638
Public defence
2005-06-09, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High-temperature piezoresistive gauge fabricated on commercially available silicon-on-insulator wafers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-temperature piezoresistive gauge fabricated on commercially available silicon-on-insulator wafers
2000 In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, no 10, p. 196-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93217 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Silicon fusion bond interfaces resilient to wet anisotropic etchants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon fusion bond interfaces resilient to wet anisotropic etchants
Show others...
2001 In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, no 11, p. 359-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93218 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
3. Radial variations in bond strength for plasma bonded oxidised silicon wafers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radial variations in bond strength for plasma bonded oxidised silicon wafers
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93219 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Quartz-to-quartz direct bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quartz-to-quartz direct bonding
1999 In: Journal of the Electrochemical society, no 146, p. 1104-1105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93220 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
5. Direct bonded quartz resonators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct bonded quartz resonators
2001 In: Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Seattle, WA, USAArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93221 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved
6. Polishing of quartz by rapid etching in ammonium bifluoride
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polishing of quartz by rapid etching in ammonium bifluoride
2007 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1454-1462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The etch rate and surface roughness of polished and lapped AT-cut quartz subjected to hot (90, 110, and 130 degrees C), concentrated (50, 65, 80 wt %) ammonium bi-fluoride have been investigated. Having used principal component analysis to verify experimental solidity and analyze data, we claim with confidence that this parameter space does not, as elsewhere stated, allow for a polishing effect or even a preserving setting. Etch rates were found to correlate well, and possibly logarithmically, with temperature except for the hottest etching applied to lapped material. Roughness as a function of temperature and concentration behaved well for the lapped material, but lacked systematic variation in the case of the polished material. At the lowest temperature, concentration had no effect on etch rate or roughness. Future efforts are targeted at temperatures and concentrations closer to the solubility limit.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93222 (URN)10.1109/TUFFC.2007.406 (DOI)000247578700020 ()
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion quantification methods for wafer bonding
In: Materials Science and Engineering R: ReportsArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93223 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-17 Created: 2005-05-17Bibliographically approved

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