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Eurasian Arctic Tectonics: Geology of Severnaya Zemlya (North Kara Terrane) and Relationships to the Timanide Margin of Baltica
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The North Kara Terrane (NKT), with Severnaya Zemlya as its main outcrop area, constitutes the Palaeozoic and older rocks of the northern part of the Kara Shelf. Potential field data suggest a continuation into the eastern Barents Shelf. Several lines of evidence imply that the NKT was a part of Baltica at least during the latter part of the Neoproterozoic, and probably was influenced by Timanian orogeny.

The Timanide type area is characterised by metaturbidites from the pre-Timanian passive margin of the East European Craton (EEC). Regional amphibolite facies metamorphism, as exposed on Kanin Peninsula, was probably followed by near-isothermal decompression. It is inferred that these conditions were reached by depression beneath the accreted outboard terranes. Subsequently, the metaturbidites were thrust into their present position onto the EEC’s pericratonic unmetamorphosed shelf sediments. The thrusting was accompanied by rapid exhumation. About 560 Ma late-orogenic granites intrude the Timanian accreted terranes.

On Severnaya Zemlya, Neoproterozoic turbidites, containing ca. 560 Ma zircons, are overlain by shelf deposits, which dominate the Palaeozoic until the end of the Silurian. The succession is interrupted by the regional Kan’on (canyon) River Unconformity and probably by a late Neoproterozoic unconformity. New U-Th-Pb ion-microprobe isotope-ages on volcanics and faunal evidence imply that the Kan'on River Unconformity developed in a short time span around the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Other isotope-ages demonstrate that intense igneous activity, which has been inferred to be related to rifting within the NKT, extended into the Arenig and was contemporaneous with the development of Baltica’s northeastern passive margin. Zircon xenocrysts (ca. 540 - 580 Ma) in these igneous rocks indicate a Timanian component in the crust below the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. In the latest Silurian, Old Red Sandstone facies sedimentation began with the migration of an inferred Caledonian foreland basin into the area of Severnaya Zemlya. The Caledonian deformation front overrode the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous.

The inferred late Caledonian deformation terminated, according to biostratigraphy and new isotope-ages from Bol'shevik Island granites, before the end of the Visean (ca. 345 Ma). Thus, the Uralian collision between the NKT and Siberia (ca. 300 Ma) apparently did not affect the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2005. , p. viii + 93
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 68
Keywords [en]
Earth sciences, Arctic, Severnaya Zemlya, North Kara Terrane, Baltica, bedrock, geology, tectonics, Timanides, Caledonides
Keywords [sv]
Geovetenskap
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5851ISBN: 91-554-6286-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-5851DiVA, id: diva2:166630
Public defence
2005-06-03, Axel Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Integration of Corona and Landsat Thematic Mapper data for bedrock geological studies in the high Arctic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Corona and Landsat Thematic Mapper data for bedrock geological studies in the high Arctic
2004 In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, Vol. 25, no 22, p. 5143-5162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93212 (URN)
Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11Bibliographically approved
2. a
Open this publication in new window or tab >>a
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93213 (URN)
Note

Finally published as conference proceeding, see http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99429

Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11 Last updated: 2015-07-21
3. New geochronological data on Palaeozoic igneous activity and deformation in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Russia, and implications for the development of the Eurasian Arctic margin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New geochronological data on Palaeozoic igneous activity and deformation in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Russia, and implications for the development of the Eurasian Arctic margin
2007 (English)In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 105-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, located close to the continental edge of the Kara Shelf in the Russian high Arctic, represents, together with northern Tajmyr, the exposed Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic part of the North Kara Terrane. This terrane has been interpreted as an independent microcontinent or part of a larger entity, such as Arctida or Baltica, prior to collision with Siberia in Late Carboniferous time. A major stratigraphic break, the Kan'on (canyon) River Unconformity, separates folded Late Cambrian from Early Ordovician successions in one area, October Revolution Island. New geochronological U–Th–Pb ion-microprobe data on volcanic and intrusive rocks from this island constrain the age of an important magmatic episode in the earliest Ordovician. A tuff, in association with Tremadocian fossils, overlying the Kan'on River Unconformity, has been dated to 489.5 ± 2.7 Ma. The youngest rocks beneath the unconformity are of the Peltura minor Zone, and the latter has been dated previously, in western Avalonia, to 490.1+1.7−0.9 Ma. Thus, little time is available for the tectonic episode recorded by the unconformity, and the similarities in radiometric dates may indicate problems with the correlation of faunal markers for the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary across palaeo-continents. The other extrusive and intrusive rocks which have been related to Early Ordovician rifting in the Severnaya Zemlya area yield ages from 489 Ma to 475 Ma. An undeformed granite, cutting folded Neoproterozoic successions on neighbouring Bol'shevik Island has been dated to 342 ± 3.6 Ma and 343.5 ± 4.1 Ma (Early Carboniferous), in accord with evidence elsewhere of Carboniferous strata unconformably overlying the folded older successions. This evidence conflicts with the common interpretation that the structure of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago originated during the collision of the North Kara Terrane with Siberia in Late Carboniferous time. An alternative interpretation is that Severnaya Zemlya was located in the Baltica foreland of the Caledonide Orogen and that the eastward-migrating deformation of the foreland basin reached the area of the archipelago in latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. This affinity of the North Kara Terrane to Baltica is further supported by 540–560 Ma xenocrysts in Ordovician intrusions on October Revolution Island, an age which is characteristic of the Timanide margin of Baltica.

Keywords
geochronology, tectonics, Severnaya Zemlya, Baltica, Siberia
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93214 (URN)10.1017/S001675680600272X (DOI)000244395200006 ()
Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14
4. Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic
2008 (English)In: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 519-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80 degrees N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan'on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by decollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the decollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with those in the upper structural level along the major N-trending Fiordovoe Lake Fault Zone, which involved several kilometres of dextral strike-slip movement and downthrow to the west. A major Early Carboniferous unconformity separates the folded Mid-Palaeozoic and older rocks from overlying Carboniferous formations, as on Franz Joseph Land and Svalbard. Subsequent latest Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic orogeny, as on Taimyr, apparently had little influence on the Severnaya Zemlya successions.

Keywords
Geology, Tectonics, Caledonian, Severnaya Zemlya, Baltica
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93215 (URN)10.1007/s00531-007-0182-2 (DOI)000254903800005 ()
Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14
5. Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism of the Kanin Peninsula, Timanide Orogen, northern Russia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism of the Kanin Peninsula, Timanide Orogen, northern Russia
2004 (English)In: The Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen of Eastern Baltica., London: Geological Society of London, 2004, p. 59-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Geological Society of London, 2004
Series
Geografiska regionstudier, ISSN 0431-2023
Series
Geological Society of London, Memoirs
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93216 (URN)1-86239-172-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2005-05-11 Created: 2005-05-11 Last updated: 2015-07-21

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