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Genetic studies of two inherited human phenotypes: Hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on the identification of genetic factors underlying two inherited human phenotypes: hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity.

Non-syndromic hearing loss segregating in a Swedish family was tested for linkage to 13 previously reported candidate loci for hearing disabilities. Linkage was found to two loci: DFNA12 (llq22-q24) and DFNA2 (lp32). A detailed analysis of the phenotypes and haplotypes shared by the affected individuals supported the hypothesis of digenic inheritance of hearing disability in the Swedish family. Mutation screening of α-tectorin, a gene residing within the DFNA12 region revealed a mutation of a conserved amino acid (Cys to Ser), that segregated with the disease. The identification of the mutation added support to the involvement of α-tectorin in hearing disabilities. In contrast, no mutations were identified in two candidate genes at the DFNA2 locus, that were reported to cause hearing loss in other families. It is possible that the DFNA2 locus contains a third, not yet identified, hearing loss gene.

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB) catalyze the degradation of certain neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and are associated with specific behavioral and neuropsychiatric human traits. Activity levels of both monoamine oxidases (MAO) are highly variable among humans and are determined by unknown genetic factors. This study investigated the relationship of different MAO alleles with MAO mRNA levels and enzyme activity in human brain. Several novel DNA polymorphisms were identified in a group of Swedish individuals. Haplotypes containing several closely located MAOA polymorphisms were assessed in Asian, African, and Caucasian populations. The haplotype distribution and diversity pattern found among the three populations supported the occurrence of a bottleneck during the dispersion of modem humans from Africa.

Allelic association studies conducted on postmortem human brain samples, revealed the association between a SNP in the MAOB intron 13, and different levels of both MAO enzyme activities. This suggested that this SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with at least one novel functional DNA polymorphism that controls MAO enzyme activities in human brain. The identification of functional polymorphisms regulating the activity of these enzymes will help to elucidate the involvement of MAO in human behavior and neuropsychiatric conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2001. , p. 54
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 990
Keywords [en]
Genetics, linkage analysis, hearing loss, digenic inheritance, allelic association, monoamine oxidase, human genetic diversity
Keywords [sv]
Genetik
National Category
Medical Genetics
Research subject
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-578ISBN: 91-554-4917-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-578DiVA, id: diva2:166352
Public defence
2001-02-02, Rudbeck hall, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala, 13:15
Available from: 2001-01-12 Created: 2001-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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