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Studies of neuropeptides in pancreatic beta cell function with special emphasis on islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP)
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence of protein amyloid in pancreas and its association to diabetes was first described 100 years ago in 1901, but was not identified as Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) until 1986. The aim of the present work was to determine the role of the beta cell hormone, IAPP, in normal pancreatic islet physiology and during early disturbances of islet function.

Intra-islet peptides, i.e. chromogranin peptides and an extra-islet peptide, i.e. leptin, were studied to identify possible endogenous regulators of IAPP and insulin secretion. Chromogranin-B, but not chromogranin-A or pancreastatin, had the ability to inhibit islet IAPP and insulin release, suggesting that chromogranin-B may serve as an autocrine regulator of IAPP and insulin secretion.

Leptin had a more potent effect on IAPP secretion than on insulin secretion, which was dissociated from effects on islet glucose metabolism. Glucose oxidation rates were increased at physiological leptin concentrations, whereas higher leptin concentrations showed an inhibitory effect and chronically high leptin concentrations had no effect.

Female NOD mice were studied to investigate the release of IAPP in the progression to type 1 diabetes. The release of IAPP was lower than that of insulin from immune cell infiltrated islets, indicating preferential insulin release during the early course of the disease.

IAPP is expressed at an early embryonic stage. The effect of IAPP on cell proliferation in neonatal rat islets was studied in the search for a physiological role of IAPP. IAPP concentrations of (1-1000) nM stimulated neonatal islet cell proliferation mostly in beta cells and to a lesser extent in alpha cells. IAPP did not have any marked effect on the islet cell death frequency. These data indicate a role for IAPP as a potential regulator of beta cell proliferation in neonatal pancreatic islet.

It is concluded that IAPP may be involved in regulation of pancreatic beta cell function both in fetal and adult life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2000. , p. 68
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 980
Keywords [en]
Cell biology, alpha cell, amylin, beta cell, chromogranin, growth, IAPP, insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide, leptin, NOD mice, pancreastatin, pancreatic islet, proliferation
Keywords [sv]
Cellbiologi
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-560ISBN: 91-554-4890-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-560DiVA, id: diva2:166055
Public defence
2001-01-20, Sal B21, Biomedicinskt Centrum (BMC), Uppsala, Uppsala, 10:15
Available from: 2000-12-30 Created: 2000-12-30 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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