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Mosquitoes as a Part of Wetland Biodiversity
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wetlands contain both aquatic and terrestrial environments which generates high biodiversity. However, they are commonly associated with mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), and mosquitoes are usually regarded as negative by humans because they can cause nuisance and transmit diseases. This thesis aimed to clarify the association between mosquitoes and wetlands and to achieve a more balanced view of biodiversity in wetlands by including mosquito diversity.

Studies on adult mosquito diversity and assemblages were performed in 18 wetlands spread over Sweden. The Swedish mosquito species were organized in ten functional groups based on four life-history characteristics. This classification was used as an additional diversity measurement and as a tool for presentation of mosquito data.

Mosquito diversity showed several of the well-established diversity patterns such as a latitudinal gradient, a species-area relationship and a distribution-abundance relationship. In a landscape perspective, diversity of both mosquitoes and dytiscids (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) were positively influenced by a high proportion of permanent water and a high amount of open areas, indicating co-varying diversity patterns.

Mosquito assemblages in the Nedre Dalälven region were mainly structured by the extent of flooded areas and wetland type (wet meadow, swamp and bog). In addition to the influence of the proportion of temporary wetlands at a local scale, the proportion of forest gained importance at larger spatial scales and in relation to dispersal distances of species. In southern Sweden, mosquito faunas differed between natural and constructed wetlands, partly reflecting differences in wetland size. In an experiment, different responses of two co-occurring mosquito species to rapid larval habitat desiccation indicate that weather conditions after a flood could influence mosquito assemblages.

The conclusions of this thesis provide suggestions on how to construct and position wetlands for increased insect diversity, and indicate that low abundance of major nuisance species might be crucial for acceptance of wetlands near human settlements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2004. , p. 63
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 1042
Keywords [en]
Ecology, diversity patterns, species assemblages, functional groups, constructed wetlands, dytiscids
Keywords [sv]
Ekologi
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4670ISBN: 91-554-6094-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-4670DiVA, id: diva2:165446
Public defence
2004-12-10, Ekmansalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2009-03-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna characteristics of forested wetlands in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna characteristics of forested wetlands in Sweden
2001 (English)In: Annals of the Entomological Society of America, ISSN 0013-8746, E-ISSN 1938-2901, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 576-582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied mosquito faunas of four wetlands from northern to southern Sweden by trapping female mosquitoes in June, July, and August. A total of 52,298 individuals comprising 32 species in five genera were identified. The number of species increased from 10 and 12 in the two northern wetlands, to 16 in the central Sweden study area, to 24 in the wetland in southern Sweden. For a further characterization of mosquito fauna diversity, we organized all species recorded from Sweden into 14 functional groups based on biological and life history characteristics. The number of groups increased from three in the two northern study areas, to eight in central Sweden, and 13 in the southernmost study area. All functional groups present at one site were also present at the sites located farther south. Most successful species were univoltine, respiring from the water surface, laying their eggs on soil, overwintering in the egg stage, preferring forested or partly forested habitats, and having mammals as hosts for blood meals. The mosquito faunas of the two northern study areas were similar and lacked several of the functional groups occurring further south. The mosquito fauna of the study area in central Sweden included species feeding on birds and with overwintering larvae. In the southernmost study area, 13 out of 14 functional groups were found, indicating a large variety of habitats. Our results demonstrated a southward increase in the number of both mosquito species and functional groups in forested wetlands.

Keywords
mosquitoes, wetlands, diversity, functional groups
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92387 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Variation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in relation to wetland type and water regime in central Swedish wetlands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in relation to wetland type and water regime in central Swedish wetlands
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92388 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2009-03-31Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of landscape structures on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and dytiscid (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) at five spatial scales in Swedish wetlands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of landscape structures on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and dytiscid (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) at five spatial scales in Swedish wetlands
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patterns of species diversity and community structure depend on scales larger than just a single habitat and might be influenced by the surrounding landscape. We studied the response of two insect families, mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and dytiscids (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), to landscape variables at five spatial scales. We studied adult mosquito and dytiscid abundance, diversity, and species assemblages in relation to water permanence (area of permanent water bodies versus temporary wetlands) and forest cover (area covered by forest versus open land) within nested circles of 100 to 3000 m around trap sites in four wetlands in southern Sweden and in five wetlands in central Sweden. We found that mosquito abundance was greatest in areas with plentiful forest cover and a high proportion of temporary water, while most dytiscids favored open areas with a high proportion of permanent wetlands. However, diversity of both mosquitoes and dytiscids was positively correlated with high permanence and little forest cover. Mosquito species assemblages were mainly influenced by forest cover at a large spatial scale, whereas permanence was more important at local scales. Dytiscid species assemblages were mainly influenced by water permanence, especially at intermediate spatial scales. These results can be explained by the flight capability and dispersal behavior of mosquito and dytiscid species. The observed landscape associations of mosquitoes and dytiscids could be useful when creating new wetlands. Mosquito colonization could be reduced by creating permanent wetlands in an open landscape, which would favor colonization by dytiscids, a potential predator of mosquito larvae, while also supporting the diversity of both taxa.

Keywords
mosquitoes, dytiscids, diversity, permanence, forest cover, spatial scale, landscape
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92389 (URN)10.1672/0277-5212(2006)26[57:IOLSOM]2.0.CO;2 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Biological diversity versus risk for mosquito nuisance and disease transmission in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological diversity versus risk for mosquito nuisance and disease transmission in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283, Vol. 18, p. 256-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92390 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2009-03-31Bibliographically approved
5. Different responses of two floodwater mosquito species Aedes vexans and Ochlerotatus sticticus (Diptera: Culicidae) to larval habitat drying
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different responses of two floodwater mosquito species Aedes vexans and Ochlerotatus sticticus (Diptera: Culicidae) to larval habitat drying
2006 (English)In: Journal of Vector Ecology, ISSN 1081-1710, E-ISSN 1948-7134, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Insect larvae that live in temporary ponds must cope with a rapidly diminishing resource. We tested the hypothesis that floodwater mosquitoes would react to diminishing water levels by accelerating larval development time and emerging as smaller adults. Since a reduction in habitat size leads to increased larval densities, we also included two larval densities. Newly-hatched floodwater mosquito larvae, Aedes vexans (87.9% of emerged adults) and Ochlerotatus sticticus (12.0% of emerged adults), were taken from the field and randomly assigned to one of three water level schedules. Survival to adult emergence was significantly affected by the water level schedule. Ae. vexans adults emerged later in the decreasing schedule than the constant water schedule, but time to emergence was not affected by larval density. In the drying water schedule, Ae. vexans adults emerged 6 to 14 days after complete water removal. Adult size was significantly affected by both water level schedule and larval density. Adults of Oc. sticticus emerged earlier in the decreasing than the constant water schedule which was in accordance with our hypothesis, but size was not affected. Our results indicate two different responses of two floodwater mosquito species to diminishing larval habitat. Oc. sticticus accelerated larval development while Ae. vexans larvae showed remarkable survival in humid soil. Both species are often numerous in inundation areas of large rivers, and climatic conditions after a flood might influence which species dominates the adult mosquito fauna.

Keywords
floodwater mosquito; Ochlerotatus sticticus; Aedes vexans; larval survival; survival strategy
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92391 (URN)10.3376/1081-1710(2006)31[123:DROTFM]2.0.CO;2 (DOI)000238936300017 ()16859100 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2004-11-19 Created: 2004-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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