Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Vocal Expression of Emotion: Discrete-emotions and Dimensional Accounts
Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigated whether vocal emotion expressions are conveyed as discrete emotions or as continuous dimensions.

Study I consisted of a meta-analysis of decoding accuracy of discrete emotions (anger, fear, happiness, love-tenderness, sadness) within and across cultures. Also, the literature on acoustic characteristics of expressions was reviewed. Results suggest that vocal expressions are universally recognized and that there exist emotion-specific patterns of voice-cues for discrete emotions.

In Study II, actors vocally portrayed anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness with weak and strong emotion intensity. The portrayals were decoded by listeners and acoustically analyzed with respect to 20 voice-cues (e.g., speech rate, voice intensity, fundamental frequency, spectral energy distribution). Both the intended emotion and intensity of the portrayals were accurately decoded and had an impact on voice-cues. Listeners’ ratings of both emotion and intensity could be predicted from a selection of voice-cues.

In Study III, listeners rated the portrayals from Study II on emotion dimensions (activation, valence, potency, emotion intensity). All dimensions were correlated with several voice-cues. Listeners’ ratings could be successfully predicted from the voice-cues for all dimensions except valence.

In Study IV, continua of morphed expressions, ranging from one emotion to another in equal steps, were created using speech synthesis. Listeners identified the emotion of each expression and discriminated between pairs of expressions. The continua were perceived as two distinct sections separated by a sudden category boundary. Also, discrimination accuracy was generally higher for pairs of stimuli falling across category boundaries than for pairs belonging to the same category. This suggests that vocal expressions are categorically perceived.

Taken together, the results suggest that a discrete-emotions approach provides the best account of vocal expression. Previous difficulties in finding emotion-specific patterns of voice-cues may be explained in terms of limitations of previous studies and the coding of the communicative process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2004. , p. 80
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 141
Keywords [en]
Psychology, speech, emotion, vocal expression, emotion dimensions, acoustic cues, categorical perception, nonverbal communication, speech synthesis, cross-cultural communication, decoding accuracy, emotion intensity, meta-analysis, discrete emotions
Keywords [sv]
Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4666ISBN: 91-554-6091-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-4666DiVA, id: diva2:165425
Public defence
2004-12-10, Jacobsson Widdingsalen (Room 1022), Trädgårdsgatan 18, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-17 Created: 2004-11-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code?
2003 (English)In: Psychological Bulletin, ISSN 0033-2909, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 770-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many authors have speculated about a close relationship between vocal expression of emotions and musical expression of emotions, but evidence bearing on this relationship has unfortunately been lacking. A review of 104 studies of vocal expression and 41 studies of music performance revealed similarities between the two channels concerning (a) the accuracy with which discrete emotions were communicated to listeners and (b) the emotion-specific patterns of acoustic cues used to communicate each emotion. The patterns are generally consistent with Scherer’s (1986) theoretical predictions. The results can explain why music is perceived as expressive of emotion and are consistent with an evolutionary perspective on vocal expression of emotions. Discussion focuses on hypotheses and directions for future research.

Keywords
vocal expression, emotion, music performance, expression, decoding
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92372 (URN)12956543 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2004-11-17 Created: 2004-11-17 Last updated: 2016-04-27
2. Impact of intended emotion intensity on cue utilization and decoding accuracy in vocal expression of emotion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of intended emotion intensity on cue utilization and decoding accuracy in vocal expression of emotion
2001 (English)In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 381-412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Actors vocally portrayed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust with weak and strong emotion intensity while reading brief verbal phrases aloud. The portrayals were recorded and analyzed according to 20 acoustic cues. Listeners decoded each portrayal by using forced-choice or quantitative ratings. The results showed that (a) portrayals with strong emotion intensity yielded higher decoding accuracy than portrayals with weak intensity, (b) listeners were able to decode the intensity of portrayals, (c) portrayals of the same emotion with different intensity yielded different patterns of acoustic cues, and (d) certain acoustic cues (e.g., fundamental frequency, high-frequency energy) were highly predictive of listeners' ratings of emotion intensity. It is argued that lack of control for emotion intensity may account for some of the inconsistencies in cue utilization reported in the literature.

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92373 (URN)12901399 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2004-11-17 Created: 2004-11-17 Last updated: 2016-04-27
3. A dimensional approach to vocal expression of emotion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A dimensional approach to vocal expression of emotion
2005 (English)In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, Vol. 19, p. 633-653Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explored a dimensional approach to vocal expression of emotion. Actors vocally portrayed emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness) with weak and strong emotion intensity. Listeners (30 university students and 6 speech experts) rated each portrayal on 4 emotion dimensions (activation, valence, potency, emotion intensity). The portrayals were also acoustically analyzed with respect to 20 vocal cues (e.g., speech rate, voice intensity, fundamental frequency, spectral energy distribution). The results showed that (a) there were distinct patterns of ratings of activation, valence, and potency for the different emotions, (b) all 4 emotion dimensions were correlated with several vocal cues, (c) listeners’ ratings could be successfully predicted from the vocal cues for all dimensions except valence, and (d) the intensity dimension was positively correlated with the activation dimension in the listeners’ ratings.

Keywords
vocal expression, affect, emotion, dimensions, voice cues
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92374 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-17 Created: 2004-11-17 Last updated: 2016-04-27
4. Categorical perception of vocal emotion expressions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Categorical perception of vocal emotion expressions
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92375 (URN)
Available from: 2004-11-17 Created: 2004-11-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(464 kB)8284 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 464 kBChecksum MD5
0de2b29cffde6a8fe5da6b6afecab398d9822975c32fd06aa9a803223d9a5f48c295bcf7
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

By organisation
Department of Psychology
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 8284 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 7200 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf