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Physicians’ Work Environment and Health: A Prospective Controlled Intervention Study of Management Development Programs Targeting Female Physicians
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
KUPA : Kvalitet, utveckling och psykosocial arbetsmiljö (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

During the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in physicians´ working conditions at a time when health care is undergoing major structural and financial changes. Physicians report decreasing work satisfaction and at the same time increasingly contemplate on leaving their profession. Despite an increasing proportion of female physicians, they are underrepresented in management positions. Very often, female physicians also report worse personal health and less organisational influence than their male colleagues. Management programs have been viewed as an important vehicle to improve working conditions and career development for female physicians.

The aim of the present thesis was to evaluate the effects on individual health, professional development, perception of organisational structure and career development. Fifty-two female physicians participated in structured 1-year management programs. The control group consisted of 52 physicians not participating in any formal management education during the study period. The female physicians were compared with 157 male physicians in order to evaluate possible gender and manager-reported differences on individual and organisational well-being. The study also assessed occupational predictors of individual well-being, health and professional development for managers.

Participants in management programs reported a clearer organisational structure and improved professional development and influence. However, there were no significant effects with regard to health, sickness absenteeism, nor career development. Male and female physicians differed in several areas when assessed as a group, but stratifying for management level, most of the gender-related differences disappeared. When managers rated clearer organisational structure, this was associated with higher ratings on individual well-being and professional development.

Management programs for female physicians might have some beneficial effects but these programs need to be better defined and targeted to the most important issues at hand to recruit future managers. Furthermore, these programs must be better integrated with other processes to create efficient and able managers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2004. , p. 48
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 0282-7476 ; 1336
Keywords [en]
Social medicine, management programs, female physicians, well being, individ, organisation, health, career development
Keywords [sv]
Socialmedicin
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-4144ISBN: 91-554-5923-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-4144DiVA, id: diva2:164320
Public defence
2004-05-06, Grönwallssalen, Ingång 70, Akademiska sjukhuset, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-04-14 Created: 2004-04-14 Last updated: 2013-06-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The impact of management programs on physicians’ work environment and health: A prospective, controlled study comparing different interventions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of management programs on physicians’ work environment and health: A prospective, controlled study comparing different interventions
2004 (English)In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Female physicians have less influence over their daily work conditions and exhibit slower career advancement as compared to their male colleagues. The aim of this study is to assess the impact on individual and organizational well being from different kinds of management programs. Female physicians participating in management intervention programs were compared with a reference group of matched physicians and sickness absenteeism was significantly lower in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to career advancement, individual, organizational and professional well being. Health care organizations spend a substantial amount of resources on management programs in order to improve leadership, autonomy and the work-environment of physicians in times of increasing discontent among this key group of health care employees. Our study indicates some beneficial health effects from structured management programs but there is a need to develop and assess the efficacy of these programs further.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91545 (URN)10.1108/14777260410532047 (DOI)15133882 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2004-04-14 Created: 2004-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Individual and Organizational Well-Being of Female Physicians: An Assessment of Three Different Management Programs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual and Organizational Well-Being of Female Physicians: An Assessment of Three Different Management Programs
2004 (English)In: Medscape General Medicine, ISSN 1531-0132, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Management programs have become a popular method to develop future leaders. There is, however, a lack of controlled studies assessing the long-term effects of such programs on participants' career development, organizational influence, and mental and physical well-being. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to assess the possible impact from 3 different structured management development programs on the individual and organizational well-being of female physicians. One year after the end of the 1-year intervention program, the intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in ratings of organizational influence, management feed back, perception of the organizational leadership, contact with one's immediate supervisor, and personal skills development as compared with the reference group. There were no statistically significant differences, however, between the groups with regard to individual health and well-being or career development. These results give rise to many questions, both concerning the effects of these 3 management programs and the career possibilities for female physicians.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91546 (URN)1140715 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2004-04-14 Created: 2004-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Differences between male and female physicians, with and without management positions, according to organisational influence, skills development, well-being and health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences between male and female physicians, with and without management positions, according to organisational influence, skills development, well-being and health
2004 (English)In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91547 (URN)
Available from: 2004-04-14 Created: 2004-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Work environment and well being among physician managers. The importance of organisational influence and support
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work environment and well being among physician managers. The importance of organisational influence and support
2004 (English)In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054Article in journal (Refereed) In press
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91548 (URN)
Available from: 2004-04-14 Created: 2004-04-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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