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The Early Cambrian Fauna of North-East Greenland
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Den tidigkambriska faunan från Nordöstgrönland (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Small shelly fossils are common in sediments of Early Cambrian age and include the earliest common representatives of metazoan animals with mineralized hard parts. The group includes fossils of very different morphology, composition and ultrastructure. They seem to represent skeletal remains of numerous animal groups, the biological affinities of which are largely unresolved. However, the wide geographic range of many forms has the potential to enhance biostratigraphic and palaeogeographic resolution in the Early Cambrian.

The late Early Cambrian sequence of North-East Greenland has yielded an assemblage of more than 88 species of small shelly fossils, brachiopods and trilobites, indicative of a middle Dyeran age (Botoman equivalent). The recovered fossils include a number of species that are known from other Early Cambrian palaeocontinents, and particularly strong ties to late Early Cambrian faunas of Australia are documented. The many cosmopolitan taxa thus identified suggests a close juxtaposition of palaeocontinents at this time.

The systematic affinity of many of these small shelly fossils is poorly understood, partly because of their fragmentary nature and poor preservation. However, new data from North-East Greenland improves our understanding of the function and biological affinity of certain taxa. Collections of the problematic fossil Mongolitubulus from North and North-East Greenland exhibit characters indicative of a defensive function as spines of bivalved arthropods, while species of the problematic genus Triplicatella represent the opercula of an unknown tubular shell, probably related to orthothecid hyoliths. The bivalved fossil Mickwitzia from North-East Greenland combines characters of linguliform brachiopods and sclerites of Micrina, a non-bivalved problematic form (halkieriid) from Australia. The combination suggests that Mickwitzia is a stem group brachiopod and strengthens arguments for a halkieriid ancestry of the brachiopod phylum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för geovetenskaper , 2003. , p. 22
Keywords [en]
Earth sciences, Early Cambrian, Dyeran, Botoman, Biostratigraphy, Palaeogeography, Small Shelly Fossils, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, Hyolitha, Trilobita
Keywords [sv]
Geovetenskap
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3910ISBN: 91-506-1731-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-3910DiVA, id: diva2:163880
Public defence
2004-01-16, Föreläsningssalen, Paleontologiska museet, Norbyvägen 22, Uppsala, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The problematic fossil Mongolitubulus from the Lower Cambrian of Greenland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The problematic fossil Mongolitubulus from the Lower Cambrian of Greenland.
2001 In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, ISSN 0011-6297, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 135-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91212 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
2. A stem group brachiopod from the Lower Cambrian - support for a Micrina (Halkieriid) ancestry.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A stem group brachiopod from the Lower Cambrian - support for a Micrina (Halkieriid) ancestry.
2002 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 875-882Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The shell structure of the Lower Cambrian Mickwitzia, a bilaterally symmetrical bivalve hitherto doubtfully assigned to the Brachiopoda, confirms that the genus shares characters with linguliform brachiopods. The columnar lamination of its organophosphatic shell is homologous with that characterizing acrotretides. The shell, however, is also pervaded by striated apatitic tubes indistinguishable from those permeating the sclerites of the problematic organophosphatic, laminar–shelled Micrina which is close to Halkieria. No crown group brachiopods have such tubes that are presumed to have contained setae. The presence of both these features in the Mickwitzia shell suggests that the stock is a stem group brachiopod with a halkieriid ancestry.

Keywords
stem group brachiopod, brachiopod ancestry, halkieriid–brachiopod lineage
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91213 (URN)10.1111/1475-4983.00265 (DOI)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. The Early Cambrian (Botomian) stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia from Northeast Greenland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Early Cambrian (Botomian) stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia from Northeast Greenland
2003 (English)In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The problematic brachiopod Mickwitzia Schmidt, 1888 is re-described based on new material of M. cf. occidens Walcott, 1908 from the Early Cambrian (Botomian) Bastion and Ella Island formations of Northeast Greenland. Etched material demonstrates that Mickwitzia has a lingulid-like juvenile ("larval") shell with trails of nick-points, reflecting the movement of marginal setae. Juvenile and early mature ventral valves have a lingulid-like pseudointerarea with a pedicle groove. The shell of M. cf. occidens is only partially phosphatic, in particular around the juvenile-early mature shell in both valves. The phosphatic shell includes at least two types of cylindrical structures: (1) slender columns identical with the columns of acrotretoid brachiopods and (2) relatively thicker tubes which may be open to the exterior surface and have internal striations (on the ventral pseudointerarea). The striations are most likely imprints of microvilli and these tubes can be inferred to have contained setae. The thinner linguliform columns and thicker setigerous striated tubes are considered to be homologous with identical structures in the sellate and mitral sclerites of the problematic Micrina, which has been identified as a probable primitive stem group of the Brachiopoda. Mickwitzia represents a more derived member of the stem group Brachiopoda.

Keywords
Brachiopoda, Mickwitzia, ontogeny, shell structure, Cambrian, Botomian, Greenland
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91214 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Early Cambrian brachiopods from North-East Greenland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Cambrian brachiopods from North-East Greenland
2005 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 325-345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A diverse assemblage of late Early Cambrian brachiopods is described from the Bastion and Ella Island formations of North-East Greenland. The fauna includes nine species, representing all three extant brachiopod subphyla in addition to the stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia cf. occidens. Four linguliforms: Eoobolus priscus, Botsfordia caelata, Micromitra bella, Vandalotreta sp., three rynchonelliforms: Obolella crassa, Kutorgina reticulata, and an unidentified chileid plus a possible craniiform species occur. The fauna shows similarities to late Early Cambrian (Dyeran Stage) brachiopod faunas of eastern Canada and the United States, but also to faunas from the late Early Cambrian (Botomian–Toyonian equivalent) of Australia, Antarctica and Siberia

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91215 (URN)10.1111/j.1475-4983.2005.00450.x (DOI)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Mobergellans (Problematica) from the Cambrian of Greenland, Siberia and Kazakhstan.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobergellans (Problematica) from the Cambrian of Greenland, Siberia and Kazakhstan.
2003 In: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, ISSN 0031-0220, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 429-443Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91216 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
6. Anabarella australis (Mollusca, Helcionelloida) from the Lower Cambrian of Greenland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anabarella australis (Mollusca, Helcionelloida) from the Lower Cambrian of Greenland
2004 (English)In: Geobios, ISSN 0016-6995, E-ISSN 1777-5728, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 719-724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Early Cambrian helcionelloid mollusc Anabarella australis is described from North-East Greenland, representing the second occurrence of the species outside of Australia. Other Australian molluscs of this age are known from many localities including North China, Siberia, Altai, Transbaikalia, southern Kazakhstan, Mongolia, eastern Germany and Spain. These records, supported now by A. australis, demonstrate the close proximity of continents in the Early Cambrian.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91217 (URN)10.1016/j.geobios.2003.05.009 (DOI)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. The mollusc fauna of the Early Cambrian Bastion Formation of North-East Greenland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The mollusc fauna of the Early Cambrian Bastion Formation of North-East Greenland
In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, ISSN 0011-6297, Vol. -, no -Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91218 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
8. Hyoliths and small shelly fossils from the Lower Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyoliths and small shelly fossils from the Lower Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, Vol. -, no -Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91219 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
9. The problematic fossil Triplicatella from the Early Cambrian of Greenland, Canada and Siberia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The problematic fossil Triplicatella from the Early Cambrian of Greenland, Canada and Siberia.
In: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1480-3313, Vol. -, no -Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91220 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15Bibliographically approved
10. Problematic cap-shaped fossils from the Lower Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematic cap-shaped fossils from the Lower Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91221 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
11. Small shelly fauna from the late Early Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small shelly fauna from the late Early Cambrian of North-East Greenland.
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91222 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-15 Created: 2003-12-15 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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