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Older Women and Food: Dietary Intake and Meals in Self-Managing and Disabled Swedish Females Living at Home
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present thesis was to study elderly self-managing and disabled women’s dietary intake and meals in relation to age, household structure (single-living or cohabitant), disability and cooking ability. The women were aged 64-88 years and living at home, in the mid-eastern part of Sweden. The self-managing women were randomly selected. The disabled women – suffering from Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke – were selected from patient records. A total of 139 self-managing and 63 disabled women participated. Two dietary assessment methods were used: a repeated 24-h recall and a three-day estimated food diary, providing dietary intake for five non-consecutive days. The results indicate that elderly women still living in their homes seem to manage a sufficient dietary intake despite disability and high age. The reported energy intakes in all groups of women were low, which might be explained by an actual low intake and/or under-reporting. The portion sizes seemed to be smaller in the highest age group, leading to lower intakes of some nutrients. Thus also the nutrient density of the food should be given greater consideration. The meal pattern was shown to be regular and the distribution of main meals and snacks was found to be satisfactory. Meals and snacks that were defined as such by the women themselves thus seem to be more significant from an energy and nutritional perspective. Perceived cooking ability co-varied with energy and nutrient intake as well as with meal pattern.

Further, a qualitative dietary assessment method, FBCE, was analysed. It was concluded that it must be supplemented with a dietary assessment method providing energy intake figures to ensure a sufficient intake, especially when studying groups at risk for low energy intake.

Furthermore, the aim was to perform a dropout analysis. When studying older women and food, a low participation rate might be expected since the most active, the very ill as well as the disabled tend to decline participation, but also since food is a gender issue. Food could, especially for women, be a sensitive area of discussion, even though older women seem to choose "healthy foods" and eat "proper meals".

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2002. , p. 66
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 117
Keywords [en]
Domestic sciences, elderly, women, dietary intake, meals, self-managing, disabled, dietary assessment methods, participation rate
Keywords [sv]
Hushållsvetenskap
National Category
Food Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-2558ISBN: 91-554-5382-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-2558DiVA, id: diva2:161894
Public defence
2002-10-05, rum 107, Trädgårdsgatan 14, Uppsala, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2013-09-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Food and nutrient intake in a group of self-managing elderly Swedish women
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2003 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: With the increasing numbers of elderly women living at home, there is an interest to investigate the dietary intake of this group.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food and nutrient intake in a group of self-managing elderly women in Sweden.

DESIGN: A 3-day self-reported food diary and a repeated 24-h dietary recall were used. The study comprised 135 single-living or married/cohabiting women (mean age 79.5 8.0 years).

RESULTS: Mean energy intake for the whole group was 6.8 1.9 MJ, and low energy figures were obtained in all age groups indicating some possible under-reporting with a calculated EIrep/BMRest of 1.24 0.36 for the whole group. Overall, energy and nutrient intake was similar in the different age groups (64-68 yrs, 74-78 yrs and 84-88 yrs). Reported intakes of vitamin D (4.8 2.7 mg), tocopherol (5.9 2.2 mg), iron (8.5 2.9 mg), folate (200 8.7 mg) and selenium (29 11 mg) were low compared to recommended intakes. Only minor differences between women in different household types were found. The women reported a variety of food items in their diet.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results from this study indicate that self-managing elderly women report low energy figures, but have a sufficient intake of most nutrients. However, there is a tendency that the oldest women, i.e. 84-88 yrs have lower intakes.

National Category
Social Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89943 (URN)12679824 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
2. Five-day food intake in elderly female outpatients with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke
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2004 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM:

The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the intake of food, energy and selected nutrients in elderly outpatients, i.e. women with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

Sixty-three elderly women aged 64-88 years participated in the study. For assessing dietary intake, a repeated 24-h recall and an estimated food diary for three consecutive days were used.

RESULTS:

The mean age was 73.4 +/- 6.6 years. Mean reported daily energy intake was 6.4 +/- 1.7 MJ, i.e. lower than reference figures for all groups. However, looking at nutrient density, only intakes of vitamin E and folate were below recommended levels. The most frequently consumed food groups were bread, coffee, milk products, buns and cookies, and spreads.

CONCLUSION:

The reported energy intake among the elderly female outpatients was low. This might be explained by actual low intake and/or under-reporting. However, the intake of most vitamins and minerals, i.e. nutrient density, was adequate, with the exception of vitamin E and folate intake, which was below recommended levels. Food intake showed large variation and good diet composition, and there was a tendency towards high consumption of food items that are easily prepared and eaten.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89989 (URN)15359362 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2002-10-03 Created: 2002-10-03 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
3. Meals and snacks among elderly self-managing and disabled women
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2003 (English)In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of self-managing and disabled elderly women's eating events, as well as to investigate which definition/names the women had given their different eating events and to categorise these into meals and snacks. An additional aim was to study the composition of meals and snacks, and analyse the nutritional significance of these eating events in terms of energy and macronutrients.

Subjects. Elderly women, both self-managing (n=139) and disabled (n=63; with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke), aged 64–88 years, and living at home participated.

Methods. A repeated 24 h recall and an estimated food diary for three consecutive days were used.

Results. The eating events defined by the women that were categorised as meals contributed 74% of the total daily energy intake, while snacks contributed 22–23%. The meals that the women had defined as dinner, was the most energy dense meal. The frequency of eating events not defined by the women, was 30–34%, but contributed only 3–4% of the total daily energy intake. The disabled women had a significantly lower energy content in meals and most snacks, compared to the self-managing women.

Conclusion. The main conclusion was that elderly women still living at home had their meals distributed during the day and that these meals were characterised by individuality and flexibility.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89945 (URN)10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00052-7 (DOI)14550312 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
4. Associations between perceived cooking ability, dietary intake and meal patterns among elderly women.
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2002 In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89946 (URN)
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12Bibliographically approved
5. Meals and energy intake among elderly women - an analysis of qualitative and quantitative dietary assessment methods
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2001 In: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 467-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89947 (URN)
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12Bibliographically approved
6. Reasons among older Swedish women of not participating in a food survey.
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2002 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 561-567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89948 (URN)
Available from: 2002-09-12 Created: 2002-09-12 Last updated: 2015-01-10

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