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Type A Behavior and Hyperactivity/ADHD: Are They Related?
Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis focuses on Type A behavior in children and its possible relation to hyperactivity/ADHD. Type A behavior in children has commonly been studied as the child equivalent behaviors of the adult pattern, in other words, competitive achievement-striving, impatience/time-urgency, and aggressiveness.

Study I investigated the convergent and discriminant validity of observationally assessed Type A behavior with regard to parent- and teacher-rated Type A behavior (Matthews Youth Test for Health [MYTH] questionnaire) and hyperactivity (questionnaire) among 8-year-olds. Study II was similar although these relations were studied longitudinally between 4 and 8 years of age, and hyperactivity was observationally assessed at age 4. The results of Studies I and II showed that Type A behavior is discernible already at age 4 and that it should be regarded as a phenomenon rather distinct from hyperactivity. Assessing aspects of Impatience, however, was found to be problematic, both in terms of discriminating between Type A behavior and hyperactivity, and in terms of showing stability over time. The MYTH was concluded to measure Type A behavior too indiscriminately, showing a substantial overlap with hyperactivity.

Study III attempted to differentiate Type A behavior (MYTH-defined) and hyperactivity/ADHD using observed motivation during a reaction time task. The results pointed to the MYTH as indiscriminant from hyperactivity measures with regard to observed motivation and task performance. The perception of Type A individuals as highly motivated to achieve was not evident in this study.

In Study IV, an observationally assessed Type A group was compared to a Type B group and an ADHD group on measures of inhibitory control and executive functioning. The results pointed to similarities between Type A and ADHD boys regarding overt displays of time-urgency and impatience. However, differences on other tasks of executive functioning lead to speculations concerning differing origins of overtly similar characteristics of Type A behavior and ADHD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2002. , p. 85
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 0282-7492 ; 111
Keyword [en]
Psychology, Type A behavior, hyperactivity, ADHD, observations, children, MYTH, development
Keyword [sv]
Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1654ISBN: 91-554-5223-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-1654DiVA, id: diva2:161263
Public defence
2002-02-22, Universitetshusets lärosal X, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessing Type A behavior in 8-year-olds: Exploring the overlap between the constructs of Type A behavior and hyperactivity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Type A behavior in 8-year-olds: Exploring the overlap between the constructs of Type A behavior and hyperactivity
1997 In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 292-309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89616 (URN)
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30Bibliographically approved
2. Assessing Type A behaviour in children: A longitudinal exploration of the overlap between Type A behaviour and hyperactivity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Type A behaviour in children: A longitudinal exploration of the overlap between Type A behaviour and hyperactivity
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89617 (URN)
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30Bibliographically approved
3. Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task
2003 (English)In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In light of the previously found overlap between Type A behaviour as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) and hyperactivity scales, the overall aim of this study was to clarify the standing of MYTH‐defined Type A behaviour relative to hyperactivity and Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using observed task motivation and performance on a choice reaction‐time task, the Complex Reaction Time (CRT) measure. This study included 21 boys exhibiting Type A behaviour, 22 ADHD boys, 20 non‐clinically hyperactive boys, and 20 non‐hyperactive boys, between the ages of 6 and 13 years. It was proposed that a differentiation of constructs would be possible using observed task motivation if the MYTH were a discriminantly valid measure of Type A behaviour. Results showed that the MYTH‐defined Type A group differed from the clinically diagnosed ADHD group, although it was markedly similar to the non‐clinical hyperactive group, displaying comparable CRT performance and low level of task motivation. Type A behaviour correlated to CRT performance and task motivation in a way which was conceptually more indicative of hyperactivity than of Type A behaviour, which questions the validity of the MYTH as a measure of the Type A construct. The MYTH Impatience subscale was found to be particularly impure with regard to hyperactivity.

Keyword
Type A behaviour, hyperactivity, ADHD, motivation, reaction time task
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89618 (URN)10.1002/icd.270 (DOI)
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Inhibition and executive functioning in Type A and ADHD boys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibition and executive functioning in Type A and ADHD boys
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89619 (URN)
Available from: 2002-01-30 Created: 2002-01-30 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved

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