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Effects of Post-Glacial Range Expansions and Population Bottlenecks on Species Richness
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis relates modern speciation theory to the effects of sudden changes in the range and size of populations. Special reference is made to the climatic oscillations during the Quaternary ice ages. A meta-analysis of laboratory experiments showed that support for allopatric speciation is weak, especially for the peripatric type of allopatric speciation. Furthermore, factors traditionally believed to increase the likelihood of speciation have had little effect on the generation of reproductive isolation in speciation experiments. However, the method of testing reproductive isolation appeared important, in the sense that experimentally derived sister populations were likely to demonstrate reproductive isolation from each other but not from the unaffected mother population. Raw data from mating tests showed that the poor isolation between mother and daughter populations was an effect of asymmetric mate preferences towards males from the mother population. This suggests that peripatric speciation can be effective in generating reproductive isolation between sister populations. The proposed mechanism is that males become less attractive to females by losing certain secondary sexual traits during population bottlenecks, and that females shift their preferences towards other male traits. Support for this mode of speciation is found in the widespread bird genus Motacilla (wagtails). This genus is characterised by extensive plumage variation and contains a large number of widely distributed taxa in the northern parts of its distribution. This thesis shows that taxonomic diversity of wagtails is inversely related to complexity in song and to diversity in molecular and mitochondrial markers. The northern taxa seem to be descendants of southern populations, which were subjected to bottlenecks during expansions into re-opened habitats after the last ice age. The bottlenecks would not only reduce genetic diversity but also inhibit cultural transmission of song to the leading edge of colonisers, allowing sexual selection on other traits, such as plumage. Rapid plumage differentiation among wagtail taxa appears to be a recurrent process and has lead to convergent evolution, making the currently recognised species Motacilla flava (Yellow Wagtail) polyphyletic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2001. , p. 42
Series
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1104-232X ; 664
Keywords [en]
Developmental biology, Peripatric speciation, bottlenecks, mating asymmetries, Kaneshiro model, Quaternary ice-ages, phylogeny, Motacilla, Motacilla flava
Keywords [sv]
Utvecklingsbiologi
National Category
Developmental Biology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-1426ISBN: 91-554-5140-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-1426DiVA, id: diva2:160951
Public defence
2001-10-20, Zootissalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Villavägen 9, 752 36 Uppsala, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Available from: 2001-10-15 Created: 2001-10-15Bibliographically approved

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