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Mechanisms of Incorporation for D-Amino Acid Probes That Target Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis
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2019 (English)In: ACS Chemical Biology, ISSN 1554-8929, E-ISSN 1554-8937, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 2745-2756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bacteria exhibit a myriad of different morphologies, through the synthesis and modification of their essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall. Our discovery of a fluorescent D-amino acid (FDAA)-based PG labeling approach provided a powerful method for observing how these morphological changes occur. Given that PG is unique to bacterial cells and a common target for antibiotics, understanding the precise mechanism(s) for incorporation of (F)DAA-based probes is a crucial determinant in understanding the role of PG synthesis in bacterial cell biology and could provide a valuable tool in the development of new antimicrobials to treat drug-resistant antibacterial infections. Here, we systematically investigate the mechanisms of FDAA probe incorporation into PG using two model organisms Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive). Our in vitro and in vivo data unequivocally demonstrate that these bacteria incorporate FDAAs using two extracytoplasmic pathways: through activity of their D,D-transpeptidases, and, if present, by their L,D-transpeptidases and not via cytoplasmic incorporation into a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide precursor. Our data also revealed the unprecedented finding that the DAA-drug, D-cycloserine, can be incorporated into peptide stems by each of these transpeptidases, in addition to its known inhibitory activity against D-alanine racemase and D-Ala-D-Ala ligase. These mechanistic findings enabled development of a new, FDAA-based, in vitro labeling approach that reports on subcellular distribution of muropeptides, an especially important attribute to enable the study of bacteria with poorly defined growth modes. An improved understanding of the incorporation mechanisms utilized by DAA-based probes is essential when interpreting results from high resolution experiments and highlights the antimicrobial potential of synthetic DAAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019. Vol. 14, no 12, p. 2745-2756
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167357DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00664ISI: 000504806100028PubMedID: 31743648OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-167357DiVA, id: diva2:1387837
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Alvarez, LauraRoper, David I.Cava, Felipe
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