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Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Wooden Facade-system Inspection
Luleå University of Technology. 1990.
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring movement, deformation and displacement in wooden façade-systems by terrestrial laser scanning. An overview of different surveying techniques and methods has been created. Point cloud structure and processing was explained in detail as it is the foundation for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of laser scanning.   

The boundaries of monitoring façades with simple and complex façade structures were tested with the phase-based laser scanner FARO Focus 3DS. In-field measurements of existing facades were done to show the capabilities of extracting defect features such as cracks by laser scanning. The high noise in the data caused by the limited precision of 3D laser scanners is problematic. Details on a scale of several mm are hidden by the data noise. Methods to reduce the noise during point cloud processing have proven to be very data-specific. The uneven point cloud structure of a façade scan made it therefore difficult to find a method working for the whole scans. Dividing the point cloud data automatically into different façade parts by a process called segmentation could make it possible. However, no suitable segmentation algorithm was found and developing an own algorithm would have exceeded the scope of this thesis. Therefore, the goal of automatic point cloud processing was not fulfilled and neglected in the further analyses of outdoor facades and laboratory experiments.

The experimental scans showed that several information could be extracted out of the scans. The accuracy of measured board and gap dimensions were, however, highly depended on the point cloud cleaning steps but provided information which could be used for tracking development of a facade’s features. Extensive calibration might improve the accuracy of the measurements. Deviation of façade structures from flat planes were clearly visible when using colorization of point clouds and might be the main benefit of measuring spatial information of facades by non-contact methods.

The determination of façade displacement was done under laboratory conditions. A façade panel was displaced manually, and displacement was calculated with different algorithms. The algorithm determining distance to the closest point in a pair of point clouds provided the best results, while being the simplest one in terms of computational complexity. Out-of-plane displacement was the most suitable to detect with this method. Displacement sideways or upwards required more advanced point cloud processing and manual interpretation by the software operator.

Based on the findings during the study it can be concluded that laser scanning is not the correct methods for structural health monitoring of facades when the tracking of small deformations, especially deformations below 5 mm and defects like cracks are the main goal. Displacements, defects and deformations of larger scale can be detected but are tied to a large amount of point cloud processing. It is not clear if the equipment costs, surveying time and the problems caused by high variability of scans results based on façade color, shape and texture are in a positive relation to the benefits obtained from using laser scanning over manually surveying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 61
Keywords [en]
laser scanning, facade monitoring, point cloud, wooden facade
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77159OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-77159DiVA, id: diva2:1377738
External cooperation
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Wood Engineering, master's level (120 credits)
Presentation
2019-11-28, 15:00 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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