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Patienters upplevelse av postoperativ smärtbehandling: En litteraturstudie
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Smärta är en subjektiv känsla där varje individ lär sig betydelsen av ordet genom egna erfarenheter. Smärta är något nästan alla upplever efter ett kirurgiskt ingrepp och där otillräcklig smärtlindring i den akuta fasen kan leda till svåra komplikationer vilket skapar lidande för patienten samt stora samhällsekonomiska kostnader.

Syfte: Att beskriva patienters upplevelse av postoperativ smärtbehandling.

Metod: Litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design av 11 kvalitativa originalartiklar från databaserna PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO vars innehåll analyserades i fem steg.

Resultat: Patienter var överlag tillfredsställda trots smärta. Det fanns delade åsikter om nyttan av NRS (numerisk skala). Patienter hade en rad föreställningar om läkemedel som ledde dem till att undvika analgetika. Information ansågs vara huvudsakligen hjälpsamt, framför allt skriftlig, dock upplevde patienter att informationen var bristfällig. Attityd, tillit och kommunikation spelade en viktig roll för relationen mellan personal och patient. Patienter som genomgått dagkirurgi och behandlade sin smärta ensamma i hemmet med mycket begränsad kontakt med vårdpersonal, upplevde svårigheter att ta beslut och följa sin smärtbehandlingsplan. Patienter uppskattade att bli inkluderade och delaktiga i sin vård, även om det kunde upplevas som en börda, och tog många egna initiativ och egna strategier under sin behandling, ofta för att slippa använda analgetika. Tidigare erfarenheter var också något som ofta hjälpte patienter i deras smärtbehandling.

Slutsats: Patienter var ofta nöjda med sin smärtbehandling trots att de fortfarande upplevde smärta, viktigast för att uppnå detta var en känsla av trygghet. Viktiga faktorer för detta var utförlig skriftlig och upprepad information om smärta, smärtbehandling och analgetika samt ett gott, professionellt, inkluderande och individanpassat bemötande från vårdpersonalen. Brister inom dessa områden ledde till oro och rädsla för det okända, vilket försvårade smärtupplevelsen. Patienter upplevde sällan fullgod smärtlindring.

Abstract [en]

Background: Pain is a subjective feeling where each individual learns the meaning of the word through their own experiences. Pain is something almost everyone experiences after a surgical procedure and where insufficient pain relief in the acute phase can lead to severe complications, which creates suffering for the patient and large socio-economic costs.

Aim: To describe patients' experience of postoperative pain management.

Method: Literature review with descriptive design of 11 qualitative original articles from the databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO whose contents were analyzed in five steps.

Result: Patients were generally satisfied despite pain. There were different opinions about the benefits of the NRS (numeric rating scale). Patients had a number of conceptions about drugs that led them to avoid analgesics. Information was considered to be mainly helpful, especially written, however patients felt that the information was deficient. Attitude, trust and communication played an important role in the relationship between staff and patient. Patients who underwent day surgery and treated their pain alone in the home with very limited contact with health care professionals experienced difficulties in making decisions and following their pain management plan. Patients appreciated being included and involved in their care, although it could be perceived as a burden, and took many own initiatives and strategies during their treatment, often to avoid using analgesics. Previous experience was also something that often helped patients in their pain management.

Conclusion: Patients were often satisfied with their pain management even though they were still experiencing pain, most important to achieve this was a peace of mind. Important factors for this were detailed written and repeated information about pain, pain treatment and analgesics as well as a good, professional, inclusive and individualized response from the care staff. Deficiencies in these areas led to worrying and fear of the unknown, which made the pain experience more difficult. Patients rarely experienced adequate pain relief.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 39
Keywords [en]
Postoperative care, postoperative pain, pain management, experience, suffering
Keywords [sv]
Postoperativ vård, postoperativ smärta, smärtbehandling, upplevelse, lidande
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-398046OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-398046DiVA, id: diva2:1374419
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-11-30 Last updated: 2019-12-02Bibliographically approved

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