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NKG2016LU: a new land uplift model for Fennoscandia and the Baltic Region
Statens Kartverk, Norge.
Lantmäteriet.
Lantmäteriet.
Oslo Universitet, Norge.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 9, p. 1759-1779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the official land uplift model NKG2016LU of the Nordic Commission of Geodesy (NKG) for northern Europe. The model was released in 2016 and covers an area from 49° to 75° latitude and 0° to 50° longitude. It shows a maximum absolute uplift of 10.3 mm/a near the city of Umeå in northern Sweden and a zero-line that follows the shores of Germany and Poland. The model replaces the NKG2005LU model from 2005. Since then, we have collected more data in the core areas of NKG2005LU, specifically in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland, and included observations from the Baltic countries as well. Additionally, we have derived an underlying geophysical glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model within NKG as an integrated part of the NKG2016LU project. A major challenge is to estimate a realistic uncertainty grid for the model. We show how the errors in the observations and the underlying GIA model propagate through the calculations to the final uplift model. We find a standard error better than 0.25 mm/a for most of the area covered by precise levelling or uplift rates from Continuously Operating Reference Stations and up to 0.7 mm/a outside this area. As a check, we show that two different methods give approximately the same uncertainty estimates. We also estimate changes in the geoid and derive an alternative uplift model referring to this rising geoid. Using this latter model, the maximum uplift in Umeå reduces from 10.3 to 9.6 mm/a and with a similar reduction ratio elsewhere. When we compare this new NKG2016LU with the former NKG2005LU, we find the largest differences where the GIA model has the strongest influence, i.e. outside the area of geodetic observation. Here, the new model gives from − 3 to 4 mm/a larger values. Within the observation area, similar differences reach − 1.5 mm/a at the northernmost part of Norway and − 1.0 mm/a at the north-western coast of Denmark, but generally within the range of − 0.5 to 0.5 mm/a.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. Vol. 93, no 9, p. 1759-1779
Keywords [en]
Glacial isostatic adjustment, Fennoscandia, Postglacial land uplift, Empirical land uplift modelling, Least squares collocation, Remove-compute-restore technique, Uncertainty estimations
National Category
Geophysics Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-31117DOI: 10.1007/s00190-019-01280-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-31117DiVA, id: diva2:1373554
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved

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