Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
LCA of Microgrid System: a Case Study at ‘North-five Islands’ of Changshan Archipelago, China
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Microgrid can provide stable, clean, and sustainable electricity supply for remote places since it can operate on renewable energy sources and work isolated from the utility grid. This thesis evaluates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the microgrid system which is located at the ‘North-five Islands’ of Changshan archipelago in China. The existing electricity generation technologies of the microgrid system are wind turbine, PV system and diesel generators with the capacity of 2 MW, 300 kW and 2046 kW, respectively. The total demand of electricity (362.2 GWh) will be supplied by the wind turbine, PV system and diesel generators with 32.03%, 2.36% and 65.62%, respectively, if the microgrid system is required to supply the electricity demand for the ‘North-five Islands’ area alone under the islanded mode during 20 years lifespan. The thesis uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions of the microgrid system. The life cycle stages of this study include: raw material extraction, manufacturing, transportation and operation. In order to assess the environmental benefits of the microgrid system, three electricity supply options – ‘microgrid electricity supply option’, ‘grid extension electricity supply option’, and ‘conventional fossil diesel generators electricity supply option’ are designed to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions for supplying 20 years electricity demand (362.2 GWh) of the ‘Northfive Islands’.

The results show that the life cycle GHG emissions of the ‘microgrid electricity supply option’ are 223.19 million kgCO2eq. Compared to the ‘grid extension electricity supply option’ and ‘conventional fossil diesel generators electricity supply option’, the net savings of the GHG emissions are 70.56 and 112.18 million kgCO2eq, respectively. It mainly results from the differences of the electricity supply methods of the three electricity supply options. For the ‘microgrid electricity supply option’ itself, the operation stage takes the most responsibility of the life cycle GHG emissions with 97.6%. The raw material extraction, manufacturing and transportation stages account for 1.93%, 0.44% and 0.026%, respectively. For the system components of the microgrid system, the wind turbine, PV system, diesel generators, energy storage system, and cables account for 0.34%, 0.18%, 97.75%, 0.60%, and 1.12%, respectively, of the microgrid system’s life cycle GHG emissions.

The thesis conducts the sensitivity analysis of diesel burn rate efficiency (L/kWh) of the microgrid system’s diesel generators due to a large quantity (60.84 million L) of diesel consumption by the diesel generators during 20 years operation time. According to the results of the sensitivity analysis, the diesel burn rate efficiency can directly impact the diesel consumption of the diesel generators, and consequently has a significant impact on the life cycle GHG emissions of the ‘North-five Islands’ microgrid system. Since the diesel burn rate efficiency represents the amount of diesel consumption, this results highlight the significance of any factors that affect the diesel consumption (e.g. quantity of diesel, temperature, altitude, etc.), in affecting the life cycle GHG emissions of the ‘North-five Islands’ microgrid system. In addition, the thesis performers the sensitivity analysis of renewable energy (wind and solar energy in specific) fraction of the studied microgrid system because of the huge potential of available renewable energy (63.65 MW of wind turbines) nearby the microgrid system. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the life cycle GHG emissions of the microgrid system decrease linearly with the increase of wind and solar energy fraction. Particularly, the life cycle GHG emissions of the microgrid system decrease 1.46% (3.26 million kgCO2eq) and 1.37% (3.05 million kgCO2eq) with an increase of 1% in wind and solar energy, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 86
Series
TRITA-ITM-EX ; 2019:196
Keywords [en]
Microgrid system, Life cycle Assessment (LCA), Climate change impact, Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), China
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-264264OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-264264DiVA, id: diva2:1372767
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1596 kB)3 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1596 kBChecksum SHA-512
599e62b22941ec9a605e7438a0c4280c11c15426218f4f558c97d1f52b3e13ba1137b62f3babedf0cbc7bd5b5d17d65edc9874f7475626f38d2c31a4bb994ede
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM)
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 3 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 3 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf