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Preconditions for bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Tanzania
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (LUNETs)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1156-8748
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (LUNETs)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1912-5538
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. (LUNETs)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2874-4146
University of Dar es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. (LUNETs)
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2019 (English)In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Most mitigation scenarios compatible with a likely change of holding global warming well below 2 °C rely on negative emissions technologies (NETs). According to the integrated assessment models (IAMs) used to produce mitigation scenarios for the IPCC reports, the NET with the greatest potential to achieve negative emissions is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Crucial questions arise about where the enormous quantities of biomass needed according to the IAM scenarios could feasibly be produced in a sustainable manner. Africa is attractive in the context of BECCS because of large areas that could contribute biomass energy and indications of substantial underground  CO2 storage capacities. However, estimates of large biomass availability in Africa are usually based on highly aggregated datasets, and only a few studies explore future challenges or barriers for BECCS in any detail. Based on previous research and literature, this paper analyses the pre-conditions for BECCS in Tanzania by studying what we argue are the applications of BECCS, or the components of the BECCS chain, that are most feasible in the country, namely (1) as applied to domestic sugarcane-based energy production (bioethanol), and (2) with Tanzania in a producer and re-growth role in an international BECCS chain, supplying biomass or biofuels for export to developed countries. The review reveals that a prerequisite for both options is either the existence of a functional market for emissions trading and selling, making negative emissions a viable commercial investment, or sustained investment through aid programmes. Also, historically, an important barrier to the development of production capacity of liquid biofuels for export purposes has been given by ethical dilemmas following in the wake of demand for land to facilitate production of biomass, such as sugarcane and jatropha. In these cases, conflicts over access to land and mismanagement have been more of a rule than an exception. Increased production volumes of solid biomass for export to operations that demand bioenergy, be it with or without a CCS component, is likely to give rise to similar conflicts. While BECCS may well play an important role in reducing emissions in countries with high capacity to act combined with existing large point sources of biogenic  CO2 emissions, it seems prudent to proceed with utmost caution when implicating BECCS deployment in least developed countries, like Tanzania.The paper argues that negative BECCS-related emissions from Tanzania should not be assumed in global climate mitigation scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019.
Keywords [en]
Tanzania, Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, BECCS, Negative emissions, Bioenergy, Biomass, Climate change, Least developed countries
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Economic Information Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162221DOI: 10.1007/s10668-019-00517-yISI: 000497834600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85075349797OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-162221DiVA, id: diva2:1372672
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Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping University; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council; Sida through the Swedish Governments development aid funds; Formas and Fortes research appropriations (Sustainability and Resilience - Tackling Climate and Environmental Changes) [201

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved

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