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Anchoring biases in estimations of age, weight and height
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of this thesis was to study the circumstances under which anchoring biases occur for estimation of age, weight and height. Paper I investigated accuracy and biases in age estimates made by salespersons with experience in age estimation, compared to a control group without any similar experience. The accuracy in age estimates of young target persons (15-24 years old) made by salespersons was higher than that of control persons. Moreover, the salespersons demonstrated less overestimation of the age of younger target persons, and whereas the control group own-anchored in their age estimates, the salespersons did not. Paper II and IV investigated gender differences in the tendency to own-anchor in within- and cross-gender estimates of age, weight and height. Both papers found that women own-anchor spontaneously both within and across gender, whereas men for the most part own-anchor only in their estimates of other men. Paper IV also investigated the possibility to increase own-anchoring by priming the participants’ use of their own characteristics in their estimation of age, weight and height. Elaborated similarity priming (asking the participants to state their estimates in relation to their own characteristics) did influence the estimates, by increasing the participants’ tendency to own-anchor. Paper III aimed to investigate whether standard anchoring effects (i.e., assimilation towards explicit, experimenter-provided comparison values) occur for estimations of age and quantities – estimations based on visual stimuli and made with a higher degree of certainty as compared to the judgments traditionally used in the standard anchoring paradigm. Anchor effects were found for both age estimations and quantity estimations, and were not affected by neither cognitive load nor source credibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2019. , p. 61
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 309
Keywords [en]
anchoring, anchor effects, own-anchor effect, assimilation, contrast, age estimation, weight estimation, height estimation, social judgments
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37792ISBN: 978-91-88947-27-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-37792DiVA, id: diva2:1372602
Public defence
2019-12-17, 13:111, Gävle, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbete opublicerat: delarbete 4 (inskickat).

At the time of the doctoral defence the following paper was unpublished: paper 4 (submitted).

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experts on age estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experts on age estimation
2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this investigation was to study the biases and accuracy in age estimation of persons selling alcohol. Two experiments are reported, both suggesting that the accuracy in age estimation of Swedish alcohol salespersons is higher than that of control persons. This expertise in age estimation is probably the result of the extensive training Swedish alcohol salespersons go through as a natural part of their profession. Nonetheless, their estimates were not free from bias. Salespersons overestimated the age of target persons below 20 years of age and thus too young to buy alcohol. The results also revealed that controls, in contrast to salespersons, assimilated their estimates towards their own age (i.e. an own-anchor effect). Furthermore, female participants were shown to estimate the age of old target persons (56-65 years) more accurately than male participants. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings on training in age estimation and present jurisdiction.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12909 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00726.x (DOI)
Available from: 2010-12-30 Created: 2010-12-30 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
2. Women Assimilate across Gender, Men Don’t: The Role of Gender to the Own-Anchor Effect in Age, Height and Weight Estimates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women Assimilate across Gender, Men Don’t: The Role of Gender to the Own-Anchor Effect in Age, Height and Weight Estimates
2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1733-1748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

his paper reports 2 studies of the own-anchor effect (i.e., assimilation in age, height, and weight estimates) in same- and cross-gender age, height, and weight estimates. The own-anchor effect is believed to be stronger for same-gender estimates, but the investigation reported here is the first to test this hypothesis with participants and target persons of both genders. Several own-anchor effects were found in females' same- and cross-gender estimates, whereas males only showed own-anchor effects in same-gender estimates. These results lean toward the possibility that women assimilate across gender, whereas men do not. Explanations of these results with reference to Krueger's (Krueger & Zeiger, 1993; Robbins & Krueger, 2005) theory of social projection and the consequences for witness reliability are discussed.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12910 (URN)10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00774.x (DOI)
Available from: 2010-12-30 Created: 2010-12-30 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
3. Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37790 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00225 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
4. Priming of Egocentric Assimilation: Elaborated Similarity Priming Increases the Own-Anchor Effect in Estimates of Age, Weight and Height
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Priming of Egocentric Assimilation: Elaborated Similarity Priming Increases the Own-Anchor Effect in Estimates of Age, Weight and Height
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37791 (URN)
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved

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