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Smart Charging of EV Batteries for Load Balancing Strategies
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This thesis analyzes the economic potential of increased charging control of Plug-in Electric vehicles (PEVs) and resulting potential for evening peak shaving and load shifting. The analysis in this body of work considered a building in Hammarby Sjöstad with four Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). A model was developed in Matlab which, with the help of linear programming tools, calculated the lowest possible charging cost for three different charging modes with added charging control for both a single night, and throughout a whole year. The “Reference mode” considers no charging control, the “Smart Charging mode” considers day-ahead electricity prices to calculate the least expensive charging profile, and the “vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode”, which facilitates the selling of excess energy to the grid.

The conclusions of this study are twofold. As presently constituted, the smart charging mode is the least expensive charging mode available, because it decreases overall charging costs without incurring an increase in battery degradation. Nevertheless, V2G is promising, because with the constant improvements in battery development, larger batteries will allow for a larger amount of energy to be sold to the grid at a profit, without a steep increase in battery degradation costs.

Abstract [sv]

Denna master uppsats analyserar ekonomisk potential hos ökad laddningskontroll av Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) och resulterande potential av kvälls topprakning och belastnings förflyttning. Objektet som studerats i denna uppsats är en byggnad i Hammarby Sjöstad som tillhandahåller fyra olika Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). En modell har utvecklats i Matlab som med hjälp av en linjär programmerings teknik har räknat ut den lägsta möjliga laddnings kostnaden för tre olika laddningslägen, med ökad laddningskontroll för både en natt och över ett år. Reference mode utesluter laddningskontroll, Smart Charging mode tar i beaktande day-ahead elpriser för att beräkna den billigaste laddningsprofilen, och vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G), som liknar Smart charging mode med en extra möjlighet att sälja eventuell överlopps energi till elnätet.

Slutsatsen i denna studie är tudelad. Smart charging mode utgör för närvarande den billigaste tillgängliga laddningsmöjligheten där laddningskostnaderna minskade totalt sett utan att medföra en ökad förslitning av batterierna. Likväl, V2G visar också potential, på grund av den konstanta utvecklingen inom batteriindustrin där större batterier kommer tillåta vinstförsäljning av större mängd energi till elnätet, utan en brant ökning i batteriförslitningskostnader.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 61
Series
TRITA-ITM-EX ; 2019:679
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-264234OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-264234DiVA, id: diva2:1372599
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved

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