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STPA-Inspired Safety Analysis of Driver-Vehicle Interaction in Cooperative Driving Automation
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
STPA-Inspirerad Säkerhetsanalys av Förare/Fordon-interaktion Inom Kooperativ Autonom Körning (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles occupying public roads are becoming a reality, and the addition of cooperative functionality open up new possibilities to ensure safer and more efficient traffic solutions than today’s manual drivers ever could. However, in order to implement these systems, they need to be proven safe.

This thesis focuses on cooperative driving and the human-machine interaction of autonomous vehicles in order to provide safety analyses. The research is based on a case study of KTH’s participation in the 2016 GCDC competition for autonomous cooperative vehicles, where their performance in three real-life inspired traffic situations was measured. The functional safety of the necessary added cooperative driving functionality is assessed using the, in the automotive industry relatively new, method of Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) resulting in a number of system level safety constraints.

The analysis concluded a lacking development in HMI-related aspects, and the item under analysis is enhanced in all driver-vehicle interaction aspects. This development introduces a direction for visual aspects and two new driver-centric hazards of mode confusion and unfair transitions, risking the vehicle being left uncontrolled or thought to be controlled by both autonomous systems and the driver simultaneously. A suggested input sequence to ensure a safe transition between autonomous and manual states is also included. The enhanced item, resulting in new possibilities of driver-vehicle interaction, was then analysed; comparing STPA with a new method introduced for safe mode switching in autonomous vehicles to identify HMIrelated hazards. The results concluded accidental input or faulty inputs from the driver as the main threat towards mode confusion. These would often be caused by malfunctioning controls for mode transition or faulty indications on the dashboard.

Abstract [sv]

Autonoma fordon på allmänna vägar blir verklighet och genom kooperativ funktionalitet öppnas nya möjligheter för att hitta säkrare och effektivare trafiklösningar än dagens förare har möjlighet till men för att tillåta dessa system måste de kunna bevisas säkra.

Denna avhandling fokuserar på säkerhetsanalys av kooperativ körning och människa/maskininteraktion i autonoma fordon. Forskningen bygger på en fallstudie av KTH:s deltagande i en tävling där autonoma kooperativa fordon kör i tre verklighetsinspirerade trafiksituationer (GCDC 2016). Funktionssäkerheten hos den kooperativa körnings-funktionaliteten bedöms med hjälp av den nya metoden Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) vilket resulterade i ett antal säkerhetsbegränsningar på systemnivå.

Analysen visade att utveckling i HMI-relaterade aspekter saknades och modulen som analyserats krävde fortsatt arbete. Under denna utveckling införs visuella aspekter, nya förarcentrerade risker i form av förvirring kring föraransvar och orättvisa övergångar samt en strategi för säker övergång mellan autonoma och manuella tillstånd. Den vidareutvecklade modulen, som resulterade i nya interaktions-möjligheter mellan förare och fordon, analyserades och STPA jämfördes med en ny metod utvecklad för säker läges-växling i autonoma fordon för att identifiera och kvantifiera HMI-relaterade risker. Resultaten visade att oavsiktlig inmatning eller felaktiga inmatningar från föraren innebar störst hot för förvirring, dvs risken för att antingen både fordon och förare eller ingen av dem tror sig ha ansvar för framfarten av fordonet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 103
Series
TRITA-ITM-EX ; 2019:687
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263933DiVA, id: diva2:1371216
External cooperation
KTH ITRL
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-11-21 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved

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