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Microbiota and mucosal defense in IBD: an update
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6716-8284
2019 (English)In: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, ISSN 1747-4124, E-ISSN 1747-4132, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 963-976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are on the rise worldwide. This review covers the current concepts of the etiology of Crohn?s disease and ulcerative colitis by focusing on an unbalanced interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal barrier. Understanding these issues is of paramount importance for the development of targeted therapies aiming at the disease cause.

Area covered: Gut microbiota alterations and a dysfunctional intestinal mucosa are associated with IBD. Here we focus on specific defense structures of the mucosal barrier, namely antimicrobial peptides and the mucus layer, which keep the gut microbiota at a distance under healthy conditions and are defective in IBD.

Expert commentary: The microbiology of both forms of IBD is different but characterized by a reduced bacterial diversity and richness. Abundance of certain bacterial species is altered, and the compositional changes are related to disease activity. In IBD the mucus layer above the epithelium is contaminated by bacteria and the immune reaction is dominated by the antibacterial response. Human genetics suggest that many of the basic deficiencies in the mucosal response, due to Paneth cell, defensin and mucus defects, are primary. Nutrition may also be important but so far there is no therapy targeting the mucosal barrier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019. Vol. 13, no 10, p. 963-976
Keywords [en]
Antimicrobial peptides, Crohn's Disease, defensins, gut microbiota, IBD, mucosal barrier, mucus, probiotics, ulcerative Colitis
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165105DOI: 10.1080/17474124.2019.1671822ISI: 000492200300001PubMedID: 31603356OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-165105DiVA, id: diva2:1370018
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved

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