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Back Analysis of Short-Term Seismic Hazard Indicators of Larger Seismic Events in Deep Underground Mines (LKAB, Kiirunavaara Mine, Sweden)
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8134-2747
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9419-2207
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9766-0106
2019 (English)In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Back analysis for evaluation of the merits of the short-term seismic hazard indicators (precursors) used in the mines and their potential application for early warning was carried out for fourteen seismic events that potentially caused damage in Kiirunavaara Mine, Sweden, selected according to our designed criteria. Five short-term hazard indicators: Seismic Activity Rate (SAR), Cumulative Seismic Moment (CSM), Energy Index (EI), Cumulative Apparent Volume (CAV) and Seismic Apparent Stress Frequency (ASF) were tested. The behaviour of the indicators was studied using the parameters of all seismic events within a sphere around the hypocenter location of the analyzed seismic source within one month before the main (damaging) event. The size of the sphere equals the estimated radius of the analyzed seismic source (area of inelastic deformation). mXrap software (Australian Centre for Geomechanics) was used for data visualization, manipulation, analysis and extraction. The results from the main analysis showed a good agreement between the expected and actual behaviour of the SAR, CSM and CAV indicators. In overall, CSM and CAV ranked the highest positive/expected behaviour followed by SAR (Table 3). The EI and ASF ranked lowest and showed to be sensitive to the number of events within the source sphere. The rate of false warnings and missed warnings was also investigated for the 25 days-long period before the damaging events. A similar trend was observed as for the main analysed event. The results from this study can be used for further improvement of the short-term hazard estimations and early warning system in deep underground mines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019.
Keywords [en]
Induced seismicity in mines, seismic hazards, rockbursts, mine seismology
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76653DOI: 10.1007/s00024-019-02352-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-76653DiVA, id: diva2:1369028
Available from: 2019-11-10 Created: 2019-11-10 Last updated: 2019-11-11
In thesis
1. Assessment of induced seismic hazard and excavation damage in deep underground mines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of induced seismic hazard and excavation damage in deep underground mines
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mining is a continuous process of extracting valuable minerals from the earth. It is an important part of human society and development that we cannot live without.  Although, it requires an extensive amount of resources, underground mining is comparatively faster and more environmental feasible over surface mining.

However, there are some major challenges involved when mining underground. As underground mining advances to greater depths, the stresses in the rock mass increase, and consequently the level of induced seismicity and damage to excavations usually increases as well. This poses a hazard to the mine personnel and infrastructure that in worst-case scenarios could lead to fatality, revocation of mining rights and temporally or permanent closure of the mine. Therefore, mining at greater depths has become a major operational issue and a challenging planning factor for most underground mines worldwide, especially at depths greater than 900–1000 m.

As a result, there is a great need to explore and gain an understanding of excavation damage associated with seismic events phenomenon in deep underground mines. The occurrence, mechanisms and magnitude at a given site could provide great insights of associated influencing factors and design parameters significant for rock mechanics seismic hazard assessment.

The performed study incorporates four components: firstly, seismic hazard tools (evaluation of seismic hazard tools currently used in deep underground mines), secondly, seismic source (which focuses on an evaluation of seismic event sources associated with excavation damage), thirdly, excavation damage resulting from seismic loading (detailed study of the characteristics of the damage, and correlation with the local geological structures, rock mechanical parameters and local stresses) and fourth, correlation between the seismic event source and excavation damage parameters.

Methods of data collection such as forensic investigation of excavation damage associated with seismic events and a study of old mine damage reports were used to gather required detailed information. Qualitatively and quantitatively analysis was done on gathered information to: evaluate the nature and parameters  of seismic event  sources that potentially caused excavation damage, assess the merit and performance rate of short-term seismic hazards in mines, evaluate excavation damage characteristics, mechanisms as well as severity parameters and finally deduce the relationships between sources of seismic event and excavation damage.

A rock mechanic seismic damage hazard methodology was developed to serve as a main guideline for forensic investigation of excavation damage in seismically active mines, ensure a consistent collection of important data/information by different project team members in mines and to provide guidelines of different types analyses that can be applied on data collected. This is important information that can be obtained and serve as initial stage of integrating different areas of expertise to find complex relationships between seismic sources and excavation damage.   Detailed outcome of the study is presented further in the thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76671 (URN)978-91-7790-498-4 (ISBN)978-91-7790-499-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-24, F1031, Luleå University of Technology, F-Huset, LULEÅ, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved

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