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Prekonceptionell hälsa och fertilitet: en litteraturstudie om kunskap och attityder
Sophiahemmet University.
Sophiahemmet University.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Preconceptional health & fertility : A literature study about knowledge and attitudes (English)
Abstract [sv]

Vård i samband med fortplantning benämns internationellt som preconception care. I Sverige finns inget motsvarande begrepp, men brukar benämnas prekonceptionell hälsa och vård. I västvärlden är det vanligt att kvinnor väljer att inte föda barn under sin mest fertila ålder, vilket leder till att fler drabbas av fertilitetsproblematik. Prekonceptionell vård optimerar chanserna till en graviditet och innebär långsiktiga hälsovinster för både individen och det framtida barnets hälsa.

Syftet med denna studie var att belysa kunskap och attityd till prekonceptionell hälsa och fertilitet hos personer i reproduktiv ålder.

För att besvara syftet utfördes en litteraturstudie. Sökningar gjordes i databaserna PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO och resulterade i femton artiklar, publicerade mellan 2006 och 2019, som inkluderades i analysen. Alla artiklar kvalitetsgranskades utifrån Sophiahemmet Högskolas riktlinjer för självständigt arbete.

Generellt sett var kunskapen om prekonceptionell hälsa låg, olika livsstilsfaktorers påverkan på den egna fertiliteten och eventuella framtida barns hälsa var okänt för de flesta. Flertalet hade kunskap om att en hälsosam livsstil är viktigt, kunskap om hur exempelvis kost, alkohol eller sexuellt överförbara infektioner påverkar fertiliteten var dock bristande. Möjligheten till att bli gravid överskattades, även möjligheten att bli gravid genom in vitro fertilisering (IVF-behandling). För majoriteten är det viktigt att ha en stabil relation innan bildandet av familj. Flertalet har även andra prioriteringar som utbildning, karriär och resor. Majoriteten önskade barn i framtiden. En övervägande andel upplevde att de inte fått tillräcklig information om prekonceptionell hälsa och fertilitet, vilket de ansåg viktigt och önskade få från personer med kunskap om ämnet, exempelvis från läkare, barnmorskor eller lärare.

Slutsatsen av denna litteraturstudie är att kunskapen och attityd till prekonceptionell hälsa och fertilitet hos personer i reproduktiv ålder varierar. Möjligheten till att bli gravid överskattas. Andra prioriteringar finns innan en graviditet planeras. Mer information om prekonceptionell hälsa och fertilitet önskas.

Abstract [en]

Preconception care is behavioral and social health interventions for women and couples before conception occurs. It is common today that women postpone childbearing, which means they don’t give birth during their most fertile time in life. This leads to more people affected by fertility issues. Preconception care aims to improve the chances of conception and means both immediate and long-term health benefits to both the individual and the future health of the child.

This study aimed to illustrate the knowledge and attitudes towards preconception health and fertility among people in reproductive age. To answer the purpose, a literature study was carried out.

The study was conducted through searches in the databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO which resulted in 15 articles, published between the years 2006–2019, that were included in the analysis. All articles were reviewed using Sophiahemmet University’s guidelines.

In general, we could distinguish that the knowledge about preconception health was low, and the fact that different lifestyle factors have effect on the fertility and possibly future children’s health was unknown/unrecognized to the majority. Most persons were aware about the importance of a healthy lifestyle, not about how nutrition, alcohol or sexually transmitted diseases could influence their fertility. The possibility to get pregnant was overestimated, as well was the possibility to get pregnant through in vitro fertilization (IVF-treatment). For the majority it was important to have a secure relationship before getting pregnant and having a baby. Further, we found that a lot of people also wanted to study, have a career and travel before getting pregnant. However, most people found it to be important to have a child in their future. The majority experienced not having received enough information about preconception health and fertility, which they thought was important and wished to receive from people with knowledge on the subject, for example a doctor, midwife or a teacher.

The conclusion of this study shows that the knowledge regarding preconceptional health of people in reproductive age varied. The possibility to get pregnant was overrated. Many persons have other priorities before planning a pregnancy. Also, more information/education on preconception health and fertility is wanted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 29
Keywords [sv]
Prekonceptionell hälsa, Fertilitet, Kunskap, Attityd
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3486OAI: oai:DiVA.org:shh-3486DiVA, id: diva2:1366255
Educational program
Barnmorskeprogrammet
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved

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