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Aerobic capacity is associated with disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors in early rheumatoid arthritis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7226-0969
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1471-3944
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2020 (English)In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate aerobic capacity and its associations with disease activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: This cross‐sectional study included 67 patients with early RA. Aerobic capacity was estimated with the Åstrand submaximal test adjusted according to the Nord‐Tröndelag Health Study formula. The following were also assessed: subclinical atherosclerosis by carotid intima‐media thickness and pulse wave analysis; body composition by dual X‐ray absorptiometry; estimated CVD mortality risk by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation; disease activity by the Disease Activity Score 28, C‐reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate; blood lipids by total cholesterol, low‐density lipoproteins, high‐density lipoproteins, and triglycerides; and functional ability by the Stanford health assessment questionnaire. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between variables.

Results: The mean (SD) aerobic capacity was 31.6 (8.7) ml O2−1 kg min−1. Disease activity and risk factors for CVD were more favourable for patients with aerobic capacity above the median value. Aerobic capacity was associated with ESR and several CVD risk factors, independent of age and sex. In a multiple regression model that was adjusted for age and sex, aerobic capacity was significantly associated with per cent body fat (β = −0.502, 95% CI [−0.671, −0.333]) and triglycerides (β = −2.365, 95% CI [−4.252, −0.479]).

Conclusions: Disease activity and risk factors for CVD were in favour for patients with a higher aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity was associated with disease activity and several risk factors for CVD, independent of age and sex. In RA, these findings may provide insights into the benefits of using aerobic capacity as a marker to prevent CVD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020.
Keywords [en]
aerobic capacity, disease activity, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164590DOI: 10.1002/pri.1833OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-164590DiVA, id: diva2:1365328
Note

First published in thesis in manuscript form with title: "Aerobic capacity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis : a cross sectional study"

Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2020-01-09
In thesis
1. Aerobic capacity in rheumatoid arthritis: aspects of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and disease activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerobic capacity in rheumatoid arthritis: aspects of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and disease activity
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic and inflammatory disease that has been associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low aerobic capacity is one of the strongest independent risk factors for CVD and all-cause mortality in the general population. In patients with longstanding RA, low aerobic capacity has been related with a worse cardiovascular profile and an increased risk of CVD mortality. As a consequence of this, low aerobic capacity might provide an additional risk factor for CVD in patients with RA. The aim of this thesis was to describe the associations between aerobic capacity and risk factors for CVD as well as disease activity in patients with early RA, and also the effects of intensive exercise therapy on traditional risk factors for CVD and disease activity in patients with longstanding RA.

Paper I, a cross-sectional study including 67 patients with early RA, mean (SD) age 53.1 (14.4), assessments of aerobic capacity, CVD risk factors, disease activity and functional ability were taken. Data were analysed for the associations between aerobic capacity and CVD risk factors and disease activity. In paper II, an intervention study, including 13 patients with RA, median age (Q1-Q3) 57 (44-64) years, aerobic capacity, pulse wave analysis (PWA), CVD risk factors, and disease activity were analysed for changes after 10 weeks of intensive exercise therapy. Additional follow-up was made after 25 weeks.

In paper I, the mean (SD) aerobic capacity was 31.6 (8.7) ml O2/kg/min. CVD risk factors and disease activity were all in favour of patients with higher aerobic capacity. In a multiple regression model, adjusted for age and sex, aerobic capacity was significantly associated with percent body fat (β=-0.502, 95%CI=-0.671;-0.333) and triglycerides (β=-2.365, 95%CI=-4.252;-0.479). In paper II, intensive exercise over ten weeks was shown to be a feasible method to significantly improve aerobic capacity (p=≤0.05), systolic blood pressure (p=≤0.01) and the number of tender joints (p=≤0.05). No detrimental effect on disease activity was recorded.

This thesis adds further knowledge of aerobic capacity and its associations with CVD risk factors and disease activity in patients with RA. Also, intensive exercise therapy was a feasible intervention to improve CVD risk factors. To include assessment of aerobic capacity in regular clinical practice may improve patient management as well as patient outcome in patients with RA.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Reumatoid artrit (RA, ledgångsreumatism) är en kronisk inflammatorisk sjukdom som i första hand angriper leder, men kan även påverka inre organ. Typiska symptom är ledsvullnad, smärta, morgonstelhet och nedsatt funktion i lederna. Patienter med RA har visat sig ha en ökad risk att insjukna i och avlida i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. I den allmänna befolkningen har låg syreupptagningsförmåga (kondition) visat sig vara en av de starkaste riskfaktorerna för att insjukna i eller att avlida i hjärt- och kärlsjukdom. Tidigare studier har visat att patienter med RA kan ha låg kondition vilket kan utgöra en riskfaktor för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom även vid RA.

Syfte: Syftet med denna avhandling var att beskriva sambanden mellan kondition och riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom och sjukdomsaktivitet. Ett annat syfte var att studera hur intensiv cykelträning påverkar kondition, traditionella riskfaktorer och sjukdomsaktivitet hos patienter med RA.

Metod: Studie I är en tvärsnittsstudie, bestånde av 67 patienter med tidig RA, som hade en medelålder på 53 år. De undersöktes avseende; kondition, riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom och sjukdomsaktivitet för att analysera samband mellan dessa. Studie II är en träningsstudie, bestående av 13 patienter med RA, med en medianålder på 57 år. Kondition, riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom och sjukdomsaktivitet analyserades för att se förändringar efter tio veckors intensiv cykelträning samt vid en uppföljning efter 25 veckor.

Resultat: I studie I visade den studerade gruppen ett konditionsmedelvärde på 31.6 mL. Sambandsanalyser visade att högre kondition var relaterad till lägre grad av riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom, samt lägre 10 års risk för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom och sjukdomsaktivitet. I studie II fann vi att tio veckors intensiv cykelträning kan vara en användbar metod för att förbättra kondition, blodtryck och antalet ömma leder. Ingen ökad sjukdomsaktivitet noterades.

Slutsatser: Dessa studier bidrar med kunskap om samband mellan kondition och riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdom samt sjukdomsaktiviteten hos patienter med RA. De visar också att intensiv cykelträning kan vara en effektiv metod att förbättra kondition och blodtryck hos patienter med RA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2018. p. 56
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164592 (URN)9789178550050 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-01-25, Sal D, Unod T 9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved

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Ångström, LarsHörnberg, KristinaSundström, BjörnWållberg Jonsson, SolveigSödergren, Anna
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