Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. (Instrumentation Physics)
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is being transformed into a higher luminosity machine expected to be operational around 2026. The number of particle collisions will increase by a factor of 10 beyond the current design value, which means that the detectors installed around the LHC are facing various new challenges. The most demanding challenges include handling the enormous data quantities that will be transferred from the front-end readout modules at significantly higher rates than previously, as well as the radiation effects that arise as a consequence of the intense particle flow and that cause damage to sensor elements and electronics.

At the ATLAS experiment, a multipurpose detector operating at the LHC, the impact of the luminosity increase is especially severe for the silicon pixel tracking detector, being the central subsystem located closest to the particle interaction point and therefore exposed to the highest radiation dose and hit density. The extreme radiation doses that the pixel modules will be subject to will cause deformation of the sensor material structure and thus loss of the signals, which after subsequent digitization by the pixel readout chip must be transferred over relatively long distances through a low-mass data link, causing further signal distortion.

The work presented here addresses both major challenges described and outlines solutions for the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector system with regards to these. Firstly, it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of detector simulations and reconstruction of particle trajectories through the detector can be achieved as higher particle fluences are approached, by modeling radiation damage effects that occur in the pixel sensors. Secondly, it is shown how a receiver integrated circuit utilizing an industry standard technique novel within high-energy physics applications has been designed as an integral part of a high-speed transmission link to efficiently restore the signal quality in order to achieve adequate data readout rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University , 2019. , p. 99
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175161ISBN: 978-91-7797-909-8 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-910-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-175161DiVA, id: diva2:1360982
Public defence
2019-11-29, sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modelling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P06012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Given their close proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be exposed to an unprecedented amount of radiation over their lifetime. The current pixel detector will receive damage from non-ionizing radiation in excess of 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2), while the pixel detector designed for the high-luminosity LHC must cope with an order of magnitude larger fluence. This paper presents a digitization model incorporating effects of radiation damage to the pixel sensors. The model is described in detail and predictions for the charge collection efficiency and Lorentz angle are compared with collision data collected between 2015 and 2017 (<= 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2)).

Keywords
Detector modelling and simulations II (electric fields, charge transport, multiplication and induction, pulse formation, electron emission, etc), Radiation-hard detectors, Solid state detectors
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171138 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/14/06/P06012 (DOI)000472134700001 ()
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector
2018 (English)In: The 26th International Workshop on Vertex Detectors, Trieste: SISSA, the International School for Advanced Studies , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be exposed to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: before the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This work presents the details of a new simulation model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS detector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trieste: SISSA, the International School for Advanced Studies, 2018
Series
PoS - Proceedings of Science, E-ISSN 1824-8039 ; 309
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174834 (URN)10.22323/1.309.0050 (DOI)
Conference
The 26th International Workshop on Vertex Detectors, Las Caldas, Asturias, Spain, 10-15 September, 2017
Note

Veronica Wallängen, on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration.

Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
3. Decision feedback equalization for radiation hard data link at 5 Gbps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision feedback equalization for radiation hard data link at 5 Gbps
2017 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, article id C01067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased particle collision rate following the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to an increased luminosity requires an increased readout data speed, especially for the ATLAS pixel detector, located closest to the particle interaction point. For this reason, during the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment the output data speed of the pixel front-end chips will be increased from 160 Mbps to 5 Gbps. The increased radiation levels will require a radiation hard data transmission link to be designed to carry this data from the pixel front-end to the off-detector system where it will undergo optical conversion. We propose a receiver utilizing the concept of Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE) to be used in this link, where the number of filter taps can be determined from simulations using S-parameter data from measurements of various customized cable prototypes under characterization as candidates to function as transmission medium between the on-chip data driver and the receiver of the link. A dedicated framework has been set up in Matlab to analyze the S-parameter characteristics for the various cable prototypes and investigate the possibilities for signal recovery and maintained signal integrity using DFE, as well as pre-emphasis and different encoding schemes. The simulation results indicate that DFE could be an excellent choice for expanding the system bandwidth to reach required data speeds with minimal signal distortion.

Keywords
Analogue electronic circuits, Digital signal processing (DSP), Electronic detector readout concepts (solid-state), Simulation methods and programs
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141271 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/C01067 (DOI)000395768300067 ()
Conference
Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 26-30, 2016
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
4. A gigabit transceiver for the ATLAS inner tracker pixel detector readout upgrade
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A gigabit transceiver for the ATLAS inner tracker pixel detector readout upgrade
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id C07005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and simulation results of a gigabit transceiver Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) called GBCR for the ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) Pixel detector readout upgrade. GBCR has four upstream receiver channels and a downstream transmitter channel. Each upstream channel operates at 5.12 Gbps, while the downstream channel operates at 2.56 Gbps. In each upstream channel, GBCR equalizes a signal received through a 5-meter 34-American Wire Gauge (AWG) twin-axial cable, retimes the data with a recovered clock, and drives an optical transmitter. In the downstream channel, GBCR receives the data from an optical receiver and drives the same type of cable as the upstream channels. The output jitter of an upstream channel is 26.5 ps and the jitter of the downstream channel after the cable is 33.5 ps. Each upstream channel consumes 78 mW and each downstream channel consumes 27 mW. Simulation results of the upstream test channel suggest that a significant jitter reduction could be achieved with minimally increased power consumption by using a Feed Forward Equalizer (FFE) + Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE) in addition to the linear equalization of the baseline channel. GBCR is designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology.

Keywords
Analogue electronic circuits, Data acquisition circuits, Front-end electronics for detector readout, VLSI circuits
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-172017 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/14/07/C07005 (DOI)000474820400003 ()
Conference
9th International Workshop on Semiconductor Pixel Detectors for Particles and Imaging (PIXEL), Taipei, Taiwan, December 10-14, 2018
Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments(81288 kB)37 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 81288 kBChecksum SHA-512
132a60b86dd2904ab6618b1790d1e1c146d3352b6a084591bfdc99feda4b12eff8cf5fe6d9f5ec7cde6a3896c299659d57dc484b6eaaa613dd392ba02614a1cc
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wallängen, Veronica
By organisation
Department of Physics
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 37 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 194 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf