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Fat-IBC: A New Paradigm for Intra-body Communication
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6899-1424
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last two decades, a significant development in the field of medical technology occurred worldwide. This development is characterized by the materialization of various body implants and worn devices, that is devices attached to the body. These devices assist doctors and paramedical staff in effectively monitoring the patient’s health and helping increase patients’ average life expectancy. Furthermore, the various implants inside the human body serve different purposes according to the humans’ needs. As this situation became more prominent, the development of protocols and of reliable transmission media is becomes essential to improve the efficiency of inter-device communications. Positive prospects of the use of human tissue for intra-body communication were proven in recent studies. Fat tissues, for example, which also work as energy banks for human beings, can be potentially used in intra-body communications as transmission media. In this thesis, the fat (adipose) tissue’s function as an intra-body communication channel was investigated. Therefore, various simulations and experimentations were performed in order to characterize the reliability of the fat tissue in terms of communication, considering, for example, the effect that the variability in the thickness of adipose and muscular tissues could have on the communication performance, and the possible effect that the variability in the transmitted signal power could have on the data packet reception. Fat tissue displays superior performance in comparison to muscle tissue in the context of a low loss communication channel. For example, at 2.45 GHz, the path losses of ~0.7 dB/cm and ~1.9 dB/cm were observed for phantom and ex-vivo measurements, respectively. At a higher frequency of 5.8 GHz, the ex-vivo path loss was around 1.4 dB/cm. It was concluded from the results that the adipose tissue could function as a reliable medium supporting intra-body communication even under low power transmitted signals. Moreover, although the presence of thick blood vessels could degrade the signal strength, the results show that communication is possible even under the presence of perturbant tissues. Overall, the results of this thesis would provide a foundation in this area and assist researchers in developing innovative and solutions for intra-body communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , p. 116
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1863
Keywords [en]
Fat-Intrabody Communication, Fat Tissue, Microwave, Propagation, Data Packet Reception, Ex-vivo, Phantom, Communication, Reliability, Implants
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393444ISBN: 978-91-513-0770-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-393444DiVA, id: diva2:1359664
Public defence
2019-11-27, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2019-11-27
List of papers
1. Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue
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2017 (English)In: Healthcare Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2053-3713, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334322 (URN)10.1049/htl.2016.0104 (DOI)000408370500001 ()28868147 (PubMedID)
Projects
eSSENCE
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies
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2018 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

Keywords
intra-body communication, path loss, microwave probes, channel characterization, fat tissue, ex-vivo, phantom, dielectric properties, topology optimization
National Category
Computer Sciences Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369000 (URN)10.3390/s18092752 (DOI)000446940600011 ()30134629 (PubMedID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-04159Vinnova, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Fat-intrabody communication at 5.8 GHz including impacts of dynamics body movements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fat-intrabody communication at 5.8 GHz including impacts of dynamics body movements
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393443 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-22 Created: 2019-09-22 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
4. Reliability of the fat tissue channel for intra-body microwave communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability of the fat tissue channel for intra-body microwave communication
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), IEEE, 2017, p. 310-313Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recently, the human fat tissue has been proposed as a microwave channel for intra-body sensor applications. In this work, we assess how disturbances can prevent reliable microwave propagation through the fat channel. Perturbants of different sizes are considered. The simulation and experimental results show that efficient communication through the fat channel is possible even in the presence of perturbants such as embedded muscle layers and blood vessels. We show that the communication channel is not affected by perturbants that are smaller than 15 mm cube.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications, E-ISSN 2474-1760
Keywords
microwaves, dielectric properties, fat channel, intra-body communication, phantom
National Category
Medical Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335483 (URN)10.1109/CAMA.2017.8273435 (DOI)000425256200088 ()978-1-5090-5028-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements and Applications (CAMA), Tsukuba, Japan, December 04-06, 2017
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-04159
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
5. Effect of thickness inhomogeneity in fat tissue on in-body microwave propagation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of thickness inhomogeneity in fat tissue on in-body microwave propagation
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Microwave Biomedical Conference (IMBioC), Philadelphia, USA: IEEE, 2018, p. 136-138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent studies, it has been found that fat tissue can be used as a microwave communication channel. In this article, the effect of thickness inhomogeneities in fat tissues on the performance of in-body microwave communication at 2.45 GHz is investigated using phantom models. We considered two models namely concave and convex geometrical fat distribution to account for the thickness inhomogeneities. The thickness of the fat tissue is varied from 5 mm to 45 mm and the Gap between the transmitter/receiver and the starting and ending of concavity/convexity is varied from 0 mm to 25 mm for a length of 100 mm to study the behavior in the microwave propagation. The phantoms of different geometries, concave and convex, are used in this work to validate the numerical studies. It was noticed that the convex model exhibited higher signal coupling by an amount of 1 dB (simulation) and 2 dB (measurement) compared to the concave model. From the study, it was observed that the signal transmission improves up to 30 mm thick fat and reaches a plateau when the thickness is increased further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, USA: IEEE, 2018
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393442 (URN)10.1109/IMBIOC.2018.8428872 (DOI)978-1-5386-5918-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE International Microwave Biomedical Conference (IMBioC, 14-15 June 2018, Philadelphia, USA
Available from: 2019-09-22 Created: 2019-09-22 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
6. Assessment of Blood Vessel Effect on Fat-Intrabody Communication Using Numerical and Ex-Vivo Models at 2.45 GHZ
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Blood Vessel Effect on Fat-Intrabody Communication Using Numerical and Ex-Vivo Models at 2.45 GHZ
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 89886-89900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential offered by the intra-body communication (IBC) over the past few years has resulted in a spike of interest for the topic, specifically for medical applications. Fat-IBC is subsequently a novel alternative technique that utilizes fat tissue as a communication channel. This work aimed to identify such transmission medium and its performance in varying blood-vessel systems at 2.45 GHz, particularly in the context of the IBC and medical applications. It incorporated three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic simulations and laboratory investigations that implemented models of blood vessels of varying orientations, sizes, and positions. Such investigations were undertaken by using ex-vivo porcine tissues and three blood-vessel system configurations. These configurations represent extreme cases of real-life scenarios that sufficiently elucidated their principal influence on the transmission. The blood-vessel models consisted of ex-vivo muscle tissues and copper rods. The results showed that the blood vessels crossing the channel vertically contributed to 5.1 dB and 17.1 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively, which is the worst-case scenario in the context of fat-channel with perturbance. In contrast, blood vessels aligned-longitudinally in the channel have less effect and yielded 4.5 dB and 4.2 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively. Meanwhile, the blood vessels crossing the channel horizontally displayed 3.4 dB and 1.9 dB signal losses for muscle and copper rods, respectively, which were the smallest losses among the configurations. The laboratory investigations were in agreement with the simulations. Thus, this work substantiated the fat-IBC signal transmission variability in the context of varying blood vessel configurations.

Keywords
Blood vessel, channel characterization, fat-IBC, intrabody microwave communication, path loss
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392068 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2926646 (DOI)000476817400018 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-04159Vinnova, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020EU, Horizon 2020, SINTEC-824984eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
7. Data Packet Transmission through Fat Tissue for Wireless Intra-Body Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Packet Transmission through Fat Tissue for Wireless Intra-Body Networks
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 2469-7249, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work explores high data rate microwave communication through fat tissue in order to address the wide bandwidth requirements of intra-body area networks. We have designed and carried out experiments on an IEEE 802.15.4 based WBAN prototype by measuring the performance of the fat tissue channel in terms of data packet reception with respect to tissue length and power transmission. This paper proposes and demonstrates a high data rate communication channel through fat tissue using phantom and ex-vivo environments. Here, we achieve a data packet reception of approximately 96 % in both environments. The results also show that the received signal strength drops by ~1 dBm per 10 mm in phantom and ~2 dBm per 10 mm in ex-vivo. The phantom and ex-vivo experimentations validated our approach for high data rate communication through fat tissue for intrabody network applications. The proposed method opens up new opportunities for further research in fat channel communication. This study will contribute to the successful development of high bandwidth wireless intra-body networks that support high data rate implanted, ingested, injected, or worn devices

Keywords
Intra-body communication, microwave, channel characterization, data packet, Software Defined Radio, GNU Radio, exvivo, phantom
National Category
Engineering and Technology Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335351 (URN)10.1109/JERM.2017.2766561 (DOI)
Projects
Eurostars project under Grant E-9655-COMFORTSwedish Vinnova project under Grant BDAS (2015-04159)Swedish Vinnova project under Reliable, interoperable and secure communication for body network (2017-03568)
Funder
eSSENCE - An eScience CollaborationVinnova, 2015-04159Vinnova, 2017-03568
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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Output format
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