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Towards a versatile gas sensing platform with epitaxial graphene
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The work presented in this thesis focuses on how to utilize epitaxially grown graphene on SiC as a basis for ultra-sensitive gas sensor. Several approaches have been tested and evaluated to increase the sensitivity, selectivity, speed of response and stability and of the graphene based gas sensors with a focus on air quality monitoring applications. The graphene surfaces have been functionalized with different metal oxide nanoparticles and nanolayers using hollow-cathode sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. The modified surface was investigated towards its topography, integrity and chemical composition with characterization methods such as AFM, Raman and XPS. Moreover, the binding energy was calculated with density functional theory for benzene and formaldehyde when reacting with pristine epitaxial graphene and iron oxide nanoparticle decorated graphene to verify the usefulness of this approach. The impact of environmental influences such as operating temperature, relative humidity and UV irradiation towards sensing properties was investigated as well. To further decrease time constants, the first-order time-derivative of the sensor’s resistance is introduced as an alternative sensor signal and evaluated towards its applicability.

Applying these methods in laboratory conditions, sensors with a quantitative readout of single ppb benzene and formaldehyde were developed and time constants of less than one minute could be achieved with the first-order time-derivative signal. These results show promise to fill the existing gap of low-cost but highly sensitive and fast gas sensors for air quality monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. , p. 81
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1851
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160482DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-160482ISBN: 9789175190105 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-160482DiVA, id: diva2:1353619
Presentation
2019-10-04, Planck, F Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance tuning of gas sensors based on epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance tuning of gas sensors based on epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide
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2018 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 153, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we investigated means of performance enhancement in sensors based on epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (SiC). Epitaxially grown graphene on SiC substrates were successfully decorated with metal oxide nanoparticles such as TiO2 and Fe3O4 using hollow cathode pulsed plasma sputtering. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman data verified that no damage was added to the graphene surface. It could be shown that it was easily possible to detect benzene, which is one of the most dangerous volatile organic compounds, with the Fe3O4 decorated graphene sensor down to an ultra-low concentration of 5 ppb with a signal to noise ratio of 35 dB. Moreover, upon illumination with a UV light LED (265 nm) of the TiO2 decorated graphene sensor, the sensitivity towards a change of oxygen could be enhanced such that a clear sensor response could be seen which is a significant improvement over dark conditions, where almost no response occurred. As the last enhancement, the time derivative sensor signal was introduced for the sensor data evaluation, testing the response towards a change of oxygen. This sensor signal evaluation approach can be used to decrease the response time of the sensor by at least one order of magnitude. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
Keywords
Epitaxial graphene; Metal oxide nanoparticles; Gas sensor; UV light; Derivative sensor signal; Benzene
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149676 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2018.04.087 (DOI)000436433600016 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic research (SSF) [GMT14-0077]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Centre in Nano science and technology (CeNano)

Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2019-09-23
2. Graphene Decorated with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Interaction with Volatile Organic Compounds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphene Decorated with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Interaction with Volatile Organic Compounds
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2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 918Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gases, such as nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and benzene, are toxic even at very low concentrations. However, so far there are no low-cost sensors available with sufficiently low detection limits and desired response times, which are able to detect them in the ranges relevant for air quality control. In this work, we address both, detection of small gas amounts and fast response times, using epitaxially grown graphene decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles. This hybrid surface is used as a sensing layer to detect formaldehyde and benzene at concentrations of relevance (low parts per billion). The performance enhancement was additionally validated using density functional theory calculations to see the effect of decoration on binding energies between the gas molecules and the sensor surface. Moreover, the time constants can be drastically reduced using a derivative sensor signal readout, allowing the sensor to work at detection limits and sampling rates desired for air quality monitoring applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
epitaxial graphene; metal oxide nanoparticle; gas sensor; volatile organic compounds; benzene; formaldehyde; derivative sensor signal; air quality sensor
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155940 (URN)10.3390/s19040918 (DOI)000460829200169 ()30813225 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic research (SSF) [GMT14-0077, RMA15-024]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW14.0276, 2012.0083]; Centre in Nano science and technology (CeNano) through the project "Graphene-nanoparticle hybrid gas sensor"; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Angpanneforeningens Forskningsstiftelse [16-541]; Hans Werthen Foundation grant

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-10-15

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