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Study of ohmic contact formation on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

It is challenging to achieve low-resistive ohmic contacts to III-nitride semiconductors due to their wide bandgap. A common way to reduce the contact resistance is to recess the ohmic area prior to metallization. In the minimization of the contact resistance, parameters like the recess depth, anneal temperature and design of the metal stack are commonly optimized. In this work, three other approaches have been evaluated. All experiments were performed on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The fabricated ohmic contacts were recess etched, metallized with a Ta/Al/Ta stack, and annealed at 550-575◦C.Firstly, it is shown that the laser writer intensity, transmittance and focus offset during optical lithography affect the contact resistance. The reason is believed to be the variation in the resist profile, which has an impact on the metal coverage. At the optimum intensity/transmittance/focus condition, which generates a relatively medium undercut, a contact resistance of 0.23 Ωmm was obtained.In the second approach, the metal layer of annealed contacts was removed by wet etching, followed by the re-deposition of a metal stack and annealing. The purpose was to increase the amount of N vacancies in the AlGaN, which are responsible for the contact formation. A minimum contact resistance of 0.41 Ωmm was achieved with this method, compared to 0.28 Ωmm with the regular method (without remetallization).In the last approach, the bottom Ta layer was sputtered, whereas evaporation was used in all other cases. The minimum contact resistance was found to be 0.6 Ωmm, which was higher than for the evaporated contacts. The reason was assumed that the thickness of sputtered Ta should be thinner than the evaporated Ta due to its higher density. Moreover, the obtained lower sheet resistance is assumed to caused by the atomic scale damage due to the high energy ions during sputtering.

Abstract [sv]

En utmaning med III-nitrid-halvledare är att uppnå låg-resistivitetskontakter, på grund av deras breda bandgap. Ett konventionellt tillvägagångsätt för att reducera kontaktresistansen är att fördjupa ohmska ytan före metallisering. I strävandet av att minska den ohmska resistansen sker vanligtvis en optimering av följande parametrar, recessddjup, anlöpningstemperatur och metallagersdesign. I detta arbete så har samtliga tre parametrar evaluerats. Alla experiment utfördes på AlGaN/GaNheterostrukturer. De tillverkade ohmska kontakterna var recesssetsade, metalliserade med ett Ta/Al/Ta lager och anlöpt vid 550-575◦C.Den primära undersökningen, visar att laserritar-intensitet, -transmission och fokusförskjutning under optisk litografi inverkar på kontaktresistansen. Anledningen antas vara variation i resistprofilen, vilket påverkar metallbeläggningen. Vid optimal intensitet/transmission/fokus-förhållanden, (som genererar en underskärning), blev den resulterande kontaktresistansen 0.23 Ωmm uppmätt.I en sekundär undersökning, avlägsnas ohmska kontaktens metallager genom våtetsning, följt av en återdeponering av ett nytt metallager, samt anlöpning. Syftet var att öka mängden N-vakanser i AlGaN-lagret, som formar ohmska kontakten. Minsta kontaktresistansen uppmätt var 0.41Wmm, att jämföras med 0.28 Ωmm, som uppnåddes genom den konventionella metoden (utan återmetallisering).Den sista undersökningen jämförde sputtrade med evaporerade bottenlager av Ta, (evaporation användes som standardmetod i de tidigare undersökningarna). Med sputtrning blev den minsta kontakresistansen 0.6 Ωmm, (högre än de evaporerade kontakterna). En hypotetisk förklarning kan vara att det sputtrade Ta-lagret är tunnare än det evaporerade Ta-lagret, på grund av en dess högre densitet. Därutöver, den uppmätta lägre skiktresistansen antas bero på den skada i atomskala som sker vid de höga energi-kollisioner som joner skapar vid sputtrning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 46
Series
TRITA-EECS-EX ; 2019:590
Keywords [en]
ohmic contacts, wide bandgap, Ta-based, recess etch, N-vacancies
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259746OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-259746DiVA, id: diva2:1353343
External cooperation
Chalmers
Examiners
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved

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