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Distributed Topology Inference for Power System Applications: Algorithms and architectures utilising industry standards
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems. (Power System Dynamics, Operation and Control)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6590-6634
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electrical transmission and distribution system is undergoing unprecedented changes to meet the need for a carbon emission-free global energy system. An expected increase in the portion of end-user energy use in the form of electricity and need to integrate renewable energy sources into the power grid on a large scale require major changes in how power grids are operated and controlled.The systems and methods used to monitor, control and protect the power grid have developed in a context where the net power flow could be assumed to originate at large centralised power stations and be transmitted, distributed and delivered to end-users. The operation and control systems still largely follow a centralised and hierarchical structure with a control centre extending a multitude of connections out to automation systems over the geographical span of the grid. With the large-scale integration of distributed generation in the power system and the interconnection of grid infrastructures to facilitate inter-area trade of electricity, many of the premises on which traditional control systems were developed are currently changing. As more distributed generation capacity is integrated into parts of the power grid, efficient methods for determination of the electrical connectivity, the grid topology, become essential components for the development of all other control systems. The systems on which these methods are implemented must interoperate seamlessly with existing and future infrastructure. One effort to address this is an internationally coordinated standardisation process for power systems management and information exchange. The resulting standards, for example, IEC 61850 and IEC 61970, provide a framework for the development of new architectures and methods with a high level of interoperability whilst remaining applicable to the wide variety of equipment and applications that will be required. This thesis aims to test the hypothesis that distributing the application logic closer to the substation automation systems directly connected to the electrical process, provides a suitable architecture which can acquire system-wide knowledge of grid topologies without the assistance of a central entity. To achieve this, three research objectives are identified; proposing of novel control system architectures, utilising state-of-the-art structured data and equipment in substation automation systems and finally to develop a distributed topology inference algorithm utilising minimum prior knowledge of the grid it is acting within.The results firstly demonstrate the use of multi-agent systems as a distributed control and monitoring architecture. Secondly, the result demonstrates the application of relevant standardised IEC 61850 data models and interfaces for data exchange, and how they can be integrated into such architectures. Thirdly, the development of work on a multi-agent systems architecture and algorithm for distributed topology analysis of power grids is described and a formal description of the topology inference algorithm is given. Finally, a validation for the algorithm using a reference power grid model is presented.

Abstract [sv]

Det elektriska transmissions- och distributionssystemet genomgår oöverträffade förändringar för att möta behovet av ett globalt energisystem utan koldioxidutsläpp. En förväntad ökning av andelen energikrav för slutanvändare i form av el och behovet av att integrera förnybara energikällor i elnätet i stor skala kräver stora förändringar i hur elnätet drivs och styrs.De system och metoder som används för att övervaka, styra och skydda kraftnätutrustningen har utvecklats i ett sammanhang där nettoeffektflödet kan antas härröra från stora centraliserade kraftverk och överföras, distribueras och levereras till slutanvändare. Operations- och styrsystemen följer fortfarande i stor utsträckning en centraliserad och hierarkisk struktur med endriftcentral som navpunkt med en mängd anslutningar ut till automationssystem över nätets geografiska utbredning. Med den omfattande integrationen av distribuerad elproduktion på olika punkter i elsystemet samt sammankopplingen av elnätinfrastrukturer för att underlätta elhandeln mellan områden, förändras m˙anga av de premisser som traditionella drift- och styrsystem utvecklats under.Eftersom mer distribuerad produktionskapacitet integreras i olika delar av elnätet, blir effektiva metoder för bestämning av den elektriska anslutningen, dvs. elnättopologin, nödvändiga komponenter för utvecklingen av alla andra styrsystem. De system på vilka dessa metoder genomförs m˙aste kunna samverka sömlöst med befintlig och framtida infrastruktur. Ett pågående arbete med att bemöta detta är en internationellt samordnad standardiseringsprocess för styrning av energisystem och informationsutbyte. De resulterande standarderna, till exempel IEC 61850 och IEC 61970 Common Infromation Model, utgör ett ramverk för utvecklingen av nya arkitekturer och metoder med hög driftskompatibilitet medan de fortfarande är tillämpbara på ett brett spektrum av utrustning och applikationer som framgent kommer att krävas.Denna avhandling syftar till att testa hypotesen att en arkitektur där applikationslogiken distribueras närmare ställverksautomationssystem som är direkt kopplade till elöverföringsprocessen, utgör en lämplig arkitektur som kan förvärva systembred kunskap om elnättopologier utan hjälp av en central enhet. För att uppn˙a detta har tre forskningsmål identifierats; föreslå nya styrsystemsarkitekturer, utnyttja state-of-the-art strukturerad data och utrustning i ställverksautomationssystem och slutligen utveckla en distribueradtopologiinferensalgoritm som behöver minsta möjliga förkunskaper om det nät som det verkar inom.Resultaten demonstrerar för det första användningen av multi-agent-system som en distribuerad kontroll- och övervakningsarkitektur. För det andra visar resultatet att tillämpliga standardiserade IEC 61850 datamodeller och gränssnitt används för datautbyte och hur de kan integreras i sådana arkitekturer. För det tredje beskrivs utvecklingen av arbetet med en multi-agent systemarkitektur och algoritm för distribuerad topologianalys av elnät och en formell beskrivning av topologiinferensalgoritmen ges. Slutligen presenteras en validering för algoritmen med hjälp av en referenskraftnätmodell.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019.
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:67
Keywords [en]
substation automation systems, IEC 61850, electrical topology, electrical engineering
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259343ISBN: 978-91-7873-298-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-259343DiVA, id: diva2:1350986
Public defence
2019-10-04, Ångdomen, Osquars backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model on a hybrid renewable energy system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model on a hybrid renewable energy system
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011, Trondheim, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

IEC 61850 is the most promising standard for design of substation communication and automation systems. Recent revisions of the standard include support for modeling, and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). This paper presents an application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model for DER in the implementation of a control and energy management system for a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES). These systems are beginning to prove their usefulness in providing deployable electrical supply in locations where no such supply exists as well as for backup power or power quality related support functions. The motivation for applying the standard to the design process is twofold; to modularize the design according to an accepted international standard and to design for interoperability with other IEC 61850 enabled devices and SCADA systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: , 2011
Keywords
Data Model, Design Methodology, Distributed Energy Resources, Hybrid Renewable Energy System, IEC 61850-7-420, Automation systems, Back-up power, Design process, Distributed energy resource, Electrical supply, Energy management system, Hybrid renewable energy systems, IEC 61850, International standards, Support functions, Data structures, Design, Electric substations, Energy management, Energy resources, Interoperability, Models, Power quality, SCADA systems, Standards, Sustainable development, Information management
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49926 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2011.6019413 (DOI)2-s2.0-80053380219 (Scopus ID)9781424484195 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011. Trondheim, Norway. 19 June 2011 - 23 June 2011
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150707. Sponsors: IEEE; IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES)

Available from: 2011-11-30 Created: 2011-11-30 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
2. Integrated multi-agent testbed for decentralized control of active distribution networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated multi-agent testbed for decentralized control of active distribution networks
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), IEEE , 2013, p. 6672479-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the development of a testbed for multi-agent based decentralized control of active distribution networks. The testbed takes into account new challenges in electric power system such as de-regulation, de-centralization, introduction of new actors, increased communication and standardization of data models and exchange. It serves the purpose of design, testing and verification of agent based distributed control and automation application development for research and education. Special considerations have been given to multi-vendor industrial compliance and standardization, e.g. IEC 61850, in the development of the testbed. The paper describes motivation for development of the platform, its architecture, components and examples of case studies that are using this testbed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, ISSN 1944-9925
Keywords
active distribution networks, co-simulation, multi-agent systems, testbed
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138844 (URN)10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672479 (DOI)000331874301119 ()2-s2.0-84893196597 (Scopus ID)978-147991303-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2013; Vancouver, BC; Canada; 21 July 2013 through 25 July 2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140320

Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
3. Development of the IEC 61850-9-2 Software Merging Unit IED Test and Training Platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of the IEC 61850-9-2 Software Merging Unit IED Test and Training Platform
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE Grenoble Conference PowerTech, POWERTECH 2013, 2013, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IEC 61850 standard specifies a data model and communication service mapping to facilitate exchange of data and events amongst devices in a substation automation system (SAS). One of the architectural components of an IEC 61850 SAS is the process bus. The process bus is an isolated network segment used for carrying Sampled Value (SV) streams of process data and possibly GOOSE status and command signals between Merging Units (MU) and the IEDs implementing monitoring, protection and control functionality related to the connected secondary equipment. The term merging unit (MU) refers to network- enabled devices that connect to instrument transformers in the switchyard streaming packets of sampled values onto the process bus as defined in IEC 61850-9-2. This paper describes work done to develop an IEC 61850-9-2 implementation and integrate it into a testing environment which can simulate primary and secondary equipment modeled substation scenarios and provide a parametric emulation of the functionality of a MU.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138604 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2013.6652385 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890889112 (Scopus ID)978-146735669-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE Grenoble Conference PowerTech, POWERTECH 2013; Grenoble, France, 16-20 June 2013
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20140107

Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
4. Development of a Laboratory Platform for Distributed Grid Management Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Laboratory Platform for Distributed Grid Management Applications
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes practical experiences in the design and implementation of a laboratory platform for developing and evaluating distributed grid management applications. The applications considered here are focused primarily on the implementation of control mechanisms for demand response of a heterogeneous portfolio of loads and distributed energy resources connected at low voltage levels. Lessons learned from the development of interfaces to various devices for integration into complex multi-host distributed control system architectures are described. Additionally, the authors provide reflections on practical aspects of building such systems and propose a set of requirements for the development of larger pilot tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
Laboratories, Autonomous agents, Distributed power generation, Power system management
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-164501 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939798 (DOI)000349551504125 ()2-s2.0-84930989515 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-6415-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE PES General Meeting, JUL 27-31, 2014, National Harbor, MD
Note

QC 20150417

Available from: 2015-04-17 Created: 2015-04-17 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
5. Process data comparison for topology inference
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process data comparison for topology inference
2012 (English)In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6345648-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Power system operation and control relies heavily on models for decision making. Topology is a critical part of producing these models and maintaining up-to-date topologies of electrical distribution networks is a resource consuming and challenging task. This paper describes a methodology and system architecture for inference of electrical topology using process and model data from IEC 61850 -compliant substation automation devices. Furthermore, it examines the measurements and data handling required for such a system to work effectively. A system of autonomous intelligent agents communicating via an overlay network is described where agents are capable of communicating on the IEC 61850 station bus for collecting process data. The capabilities of structured information exchange and interfacing of substation automation devices enables plug-and-play operation of the topology inference requiring minimal prior knowledge of electrical network structure. Decentralized topology inference forms the basis for future work in operation and management of active distribution networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting : [proceedings], ISSN 1944-9925
Keywords
distribution networks, electrical topology, IEC 61850, multi.-agent systems, overlay networks, substation automation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-103212 (URN)10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345648 (DOI)000312493706157 ()2-s2.0-84870586363 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-2727-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2012; San Diego, CA; 22 July 2012 through 26 July 2012
Funder
VinnovaStandUp
Note

QC 20130104

Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-10-05 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
6. Distributed Topology Inference for Electric Power Grids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Topology Inference for Electric Power Grids
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 3206-3215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an algorithm, including a multiagent-based system architecture, for distributed inference of power grid topologies. The core algorithm is based on processing measurement time series, or fingerprints, using statistical correlation to determine the connectivity between nodes. Notably, the method and proposed system architecture is completely distributed. The solution has been developed with contemporary IEC 61850 compliant substation automation systems in mind. This paper includes a presentation of the theoretical foundation for the distributed topology inference algorithm as well as the proposed system architecture. A case study utilizing the RBTS bus 4 model is included to demonstrate the capabilities of the method under static as well as transient situations. Furthermore, the results and analysis of the performance and scalability of the algorithm are presented. The main contribution of this paper is an application to infer the electrical connectivity of power grids without central functionality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Electrical engineering, electrical topology, IEC 61850, multiagent systems (MASs), real-time operation, overlay networks, substation automation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243553 (URN)10.1109/TII.2017.2740933 (DOI)000418128400043 ()2-s2.0-85028508586 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved

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  • ieee
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