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Cooling Control Strategies in Data Centers for Energy Efficiency and Heat Recovery
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7443-8174
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Kylreglerstrategier i datacenter för energieffektivitet och värmeåtervinning (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Data centers are facilities dedicated to the processing, storage, and relay of large amounts of digital information. As a whole, it is an energy intensive industry, characterized by a sizable carbon footprint and a short-term exponential growth rate. At a macroscopic level, their operation requires balancing the offer and demand of computational, cooling, and electrical power resources. The computational workload is influenced by external factors such as the end-users’ activity, while the overall run-time costs depend on the weather conditions and the fluctuating pricing of electricity. In this context, the adoption of optimizing control strategies and co-design methodologies that address simultaneously both the mechanical and control aspects, has the potential to unlock more sustainable designs. Improvements in the overall energetic efficiency open to larger-scale deployments in less favorable geographical locations. Recovery systems addressing the vast amounts of by-product heat can support other heat intensive processes such as district networks, wood drying, greenhouses, and food processing. This work focuses on how to adapt the provisioning of the cooling resources to the cooling demand, without negotiating the computational throughput. We devise top-down designs, that address unexplored control possibilities in existing deployments. We moreover apply a bottomup perspective, by modeling and studying co-designed cooling setups which bring significant simplifications to data center level optimal provisioning problems. The analysis aims at the different levels of the data center infrastructure hierarchy, and provides answers to centerpiece questions such as i) what are the optimal flow provisioning policies at different levels of the data centers?; ii) how to design simple but effective control strategies that address the complexity induced by the large scales?; iii) what are the exhaust heat properties that can be expected in air-cooled and liquid-cooled data centers?. Exploiting a model-centric approach we demonstrate the effectiveness of tailored control strategies in both achieving better cooling efficiency and a higher quality of the heat harvest. This thesis presents opportunities to simplify data center control structures while retaining or improving their performance. Furthermore, it lays modeling and control methodologies toward the holistic control-oriented treatment of the computing, cooling, and power distribution infrastructures. The results have a practical character and the model-based analysis establishes important development directions, confirming existing trends. Enabling intelligent data center management systems might not need to imply more complex tools; rather, a co-design effort might yield both simpler and effective control systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2019.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75917ISBN: 978-91-7790-437-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-438-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-75917DiVA, id: diva2:1349556
Public defence
2019-11-05, A1545, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Controlled Direct Liquid Cooling of Data Servers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlled Direct Liquid Cooling of Data Servers
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Controlled liquid cooling, Direct liquid cooling, Data server thermal management, Heat recovery
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75905 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-18
2. A study of fine and coarse actuation capabilities in air-cooled server racks: control strategies and cost analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of fine and coarse actuation capabilities in air-cooled server racks: control strategies and cost analysis
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keywords
Data center thermal management, Server thermal models, Controlled air-cooling
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75914 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-18
3. Computing the allowable uncertainty of sparse control configurations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computing the allowable uncertainty of sparse control configurations
2019 (English)In: Journal of Process Control, ISSN 0959-1524, E-ISSN 1873-2771Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
control configuration selection, plant uncertainty, data center flow provisioning
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75912 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-18
4. On energy efficient flow provisioning in air-cooled data servers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On energy efficient flow provisioning in air-cooled data servers
2019 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 89, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study considers how to efficiently manage the thermal state of data servers by provisioning their cooling airflow dynamically. It introduces a thermal network framework that is tailored to capture the temperature dynamics of the on-board thermal inertiae. On top of this modeling, it devises LeakageCooling, a novel flow provisioning controller that balances the temperature dependent leakage dissipation within the electronic chips and the power consumed by the local fans to produce the cooling airflow. The prediction capabilities of the proposed modeling and the overall control performance are assessed over several relevant experimental scenarios on an Open Compute Windmill V2 server.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Server thermal models, Server thermal management, Controlled flow provisioning, Controlled data center cooling
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75057 (URN)10.1016/j.conengprac.2019.05.019 (DOI)000477785800009 ()2-s2.0-85066323953 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
5. On server cooling policies for heat recovery: exhaust air properties of an Open Compute Windmill V2 platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On server cooling policies for heat recovery: exhaust air properties of an Open Compute Windmill V2 platform
2019 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2019
Keywords
Server thermal management, Server exhaust heat properties, Data center heat recovery
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75909 (URN)
Conference
CCTA
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09
6. ColdSpot: A thermal supervisor aimed at server rooms implementing a raised plenum cooling setup
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ColdSpot: A thermal supervisor aimed at server rooms implementing a raised plenum cooling setup
2019 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2019
Keywords
Data center thermal supervisor, Energy efficient cooling, Perforated tile flow model, ColdSpot
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75910 (URN)
Conference
ACC
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09
7. Newton-like phasor extremum seeking control with application to cooling data centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Newton-like phasor extremum seeking control with application to cooling data centers
Show others...
2019 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IFAC Papers Online, 2019
Keywords
Extremum seeking control, Newton-like, Data center cooling
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75907 (URN)
Conference
IFAC NOLCOS
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09
8. On economic cooling of contained server racks using an indirect adiabatic air handler
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On economic cooling of contained server racks using an indirect adiabatic air handler
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Data center thermal models, Indirect adiabatic cooling, Server thermal models, Energy efficient cooling
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75915 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-11
9. Energy savings in data centers: A framework for modelling and control of servers’ cooling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy savings in data centers: A framework for modelling and control of servers’ cooling
Show others...
2017 (English)In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 1045-0823, E-ISSN 1797-318X, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 9050-9057Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aiming at improving the energy efficiency of air cooled servers in data centers, we devise a novel control oriented, nonlinear, thermal model of the servers that accounts explicitly for both direct and recirculating convective air flows. Instrumental to the optimal co-design of both geometries and cooling policies, we propose an identification methodology based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for a generic thermal network of m fans and n electronic components. The performance of the proposed modelling framework is validated against CFD measurements with promising results. We formalize the minimum cooling cost control problem as a polynomially constrained Receding Horizon Control (RHC) and show, in-silico, that the resulting policy is able to efficiently modulate the cooling resources in spite of the unknown future computational and electrical power loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Control Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Control Engineering; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66199 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.1624 (DOI)000423965100009 ()2-s2.0-85031817824 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th IFAC World Congress, Toulouse, France, 9-14 July 2017
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved

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