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Gameful experiences: The not so painful road to gainful behavior
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this work is to investigate the experiences that users make when using gamified services and the effect that such experiences have on the targeted behavioral outcomes. Considerable attention is dedicated to the gameful experience, since this experience is necessary for gamification to affect the target behavior. Moreover, the effectiveness of gamification at triggering different motivational mechanisms and the role of engagement is investigated.

This dissertation contains three papers. Paper 1 uses a mixed-methods approach to develop a model and a measure of the gameful experience. Paper 2 uses a field experimental approach to investigate the effect of gamification on a decision to use offers in a store, and the role of engagement for this effect to occur. Finally, Paper 3 uses a field experiment to investigate the contribution of gamification to value creation in stores and how such value creation relates to brand engagement.

The first main finding is a model of the gameful experience that includes the dimensions of accomplishment, challenge, competition, guided, immersion, playfulness, and social experience, and the instrument for measuring this experience. The second main finding is that challenge-based gamification can induce positive affect, which can influence evaluative judgments (thus utilizing the affective quality of System 1 to change the target behavior) and, ultimately, brand engagement. However, such challenge-based gamification does not seem to be effective when aiming to affect the biased System 1 through effort justification. The third main finding is the results that indicate that a user needs to be engaged in order for a gamified service to work properly.

Abstract [en]

In a series of studies, this dissertation investigates the experiences that users make when using gamified services and the effect that such experiences have on the targeted behavioral outcomes.

The motivational aspects of gamification rely on the creation of the gameful experience. Paper 1 in this dissertation investigates this experience and develops an instrument for its measurement. Paper 2 investigates the effects that gamification has on a decision to use offers in a store and the role of engagement for this effect to occur. Paper 3 investigates the contribution of gamification to value creation in stores and how such value creation relates to brand engagement.

The results of these studies indicate that the gameful experience can be described and measured using a model that includes the dimensions of accomplishment, challenge, competition, guided, immersion, playfulness, and social experience. The results also indicate that the implemented challenge-based gamification, in the form of a quiz, can induce positive affect, which can influence evaluative judgments and, ultimately, brand engagement. However, the results did not show that such gamification drove the target behavior through effort justification. Finally, the results display one of the conditions for such challenge-based gamification to be effective: the user needs to be engaged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. , p. 67
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:26
Keywords [en]
Gamification, Gameful experience, Engagement, Customer experience, In-store marketing
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-74669ISBN: 978-91-7867-050-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7867-060-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-74669DiVA, id: diva2:1349233
Public defence
2019-10-22, 1B309, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-09-07 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use
2019 (English)In: User modeling and user-adapted interaction, ISSN 0924-1868, E-ISSN 1573-1391, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 619-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring users’ gameful experience while using a service. Either intentionally or unintentionally, systems and services are becoming increasingly gamified and having a gameful experience is progressively important for the user’s overall experience of a service. Gamification refers to the transformation of technology to become more game-like, with the intention of evoking similar positive experiences and motivations that games do (the gameful experience) and affecting user behavior. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring the gameful experience. In a first qualitative study, we developed a model of the gameful experience using data from a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions posed to users of Zombies, Run!, Duolingo, and Nike+ Run Club. In a second study, we developed the instrument and evaluated its dimensionality and psychometric properties using data from users of Zombies, Run! (N = 371). Based on the results of this second study, we further developed the instrument in a third study using data from users of Duolingo (N = 507), in which we repeated the assessment of dimensionality and psychometric properties, this time including confirmation of the model. As a result of this work, we devised GAMEFULQUEST, an instrument that can be used to model and measure an individual user’s gameful experience in systems and services, which can be used for user-adapted gamification and for informing user-modeling research within a gamification context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Game experience, Gameful experience, Gamification, Gamified service, Mixed-methods approach, User experience, Surveys, Mixed method, Behavioral research
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71751 (URN)10.1007/s11257-019-09223-w (DOI)000475631600002 ()2-s2.0-85062617618 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved
2. Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Engagement, Gamification, Mobile in-store marketing
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69044 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004 (DOI)000471928200033 ()2-s2.0-85049647943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
3. Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to understand how gamification contributes to customers’ value creation in a retail context and how this value creation relates to brand engagement. The study builds on a field experiment using a two-group between-subjects design combined with correlational research. The experiment involved 378 participants recruited at a major European sports retailer. Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: one with a gamified activity in a store, and one in which the participants performed the same activity without being exposed to any game elements. The findings show that gamification affects the hedonic value of an activity and that this effect can be partly explained by positive affect. When this hedonic value was compared to the satisfaction with a reward, the hedonic value was found to be a better predictor of continued engagement intention. Finally, gamification through continued engagement intention is positively associated with brand engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Brand engagement, Customer experience, Field experiment, Gamification, Retail
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-72500 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.05.006 (DOI)000471928200014 ()2-s2.0-85065402234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-09-07Bibliographically approved

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