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Transporteffektivitet vid e-handel av dagligvaror: En kvantitativ studie av sista milen-distribution genom ruttplanering och metaheuristiken tabusökning
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Vid e-handel av dagligvaror finns stora utmaningar i att skapa förutsättningar för effektiva hemleveranser. Sista milen-distributionen står för den minst transporteffektiva delen av den totala försörjningskedjan då den är svårast att genomföra kostnads- och energieffektiv ruttplanering på.

Det matematiska optimeringsproblemet som speglar framtagandet av tillåtna körrutter inom bestämda tidsfönster med flera fordon kallas för Vehicle Routing Problem With Time Windows vilket är ett känt problem som ofta nämns i litteraturen. Projektets syfte var att undersöka energieffekivitet genom att skapa en implementering av metaheuristiken tabusökning för att kunna optimera körrutter för hemleverans. Optimeringen har skett med avseende på såväl antal fordon som den totala körsträckan. Resultatet har analyserats för att kunna dra slutsatser om vilka faktorer som påverkar effektiviteten av sista milen-distributionen.

Algoritmen hittar en heuristisk lösning utifrån genererade kundordrar. Detta resulterar i en hög fyllnadsgrad vilket är positivt ur både kostnads- och effektivitetssynpunkt. Resultatet pekar på att ett stort kundunderlag, breda tidsfönster samt ett lager placerat i centrum av staden resulterar i de mest effektiva rutterna. 

Abstract [en]

E-commerce of groceries has major challenges in creating the conditions for efficient home delivery. The last mile-distribution accounts for the least transport-efficient part of the total supply chain as it is most difficult to apply cost and energy efficient route planning at.

The mathematical optimization problem that reflects the creation of permissible driving routes within defined time windows with multiple vehicles is called Vehicle Routing Problem With Time Windows which is commonly studied in the literature. The project has been aimed at creating a program using the metaheuristic tabu search to be able to optimize driving routes for home delivery. The optimization has been made with regard to the number of vehicles as well as the total mileage. The results have then been analyzed to be able to answer questions about which factors affect the efficiency of the driving routes.

The program can, using input data, calculate the shortest distance with the smallest number of vehicles. This results in a high degree of filling, which is positive from both a cost and efficiency point of view. The result indicates that a large customer base, wide time windows and a warehouse located in the center of the city result in the most efficient routes. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
Keywords [sv]
Sistamilen, sistamilen-distribution, tabusökning, metaheristik, ruttplanering
National Category
Engineering and Technology Mathematics Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162103OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-162103DiVA, id: diva2:1342754
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering and Management
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved

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