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Assessing the sustainability of on-site sanitation systems using multi-criteria analysis
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6463-7284
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9541-3542
Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9473-4034
Division of the Built Environment, Research Institutes of Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9072-7868
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, Vol. 5, p. 1599-1615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small on-site sanitation systems are widely present in suburban and rural areas in many countries. As these systems often underperform and have an impact on receiving waters, understanding their overall sustainability is of interest for policy and decision-makers. However, the definition and estimation of indicators defining sustainability are challenging, as it is finding the methodological approach to combine qualitative and quantitative indicators into one comprehensive assessment. In this study, twelve indicators defined by environmental, economic, social, technical and health-related criteria were used to compare nine alternatives of on-site sanitation for single households. A non-compensatory method for multi-criteria decision analysis, ELECTRE III, was used for the assessment together with weights assigned to each indicator by a reference group. Several scenarios were developed to reflect different goals and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Overall, the graywater–blackwater separation system resulted as the most sustainable option and, in terms of polishing steps for phosphorus removal, chemical treatment was preferred over the phosphorus filter, both options being implemented together with sand filters. Assessing the robustness of the systems was a crucial step in the analysis given the high importance assigned to the aforementioned indicator by the stakeholders, thus the assessment method must be justified. The proposed multi-criteria approach contributes to aid the assessment of complex information needed in the selection of sustainable sanitation systems and in the provision of informed preferences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019. Vol. 5, p. 1599-1615
Keywords [en]
ELECTRE III, package plant, phosphorus removal, sand filter, small-scale, source separation
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75465DOI: 10.1039/c9ew00425dISI: 000482436200009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-75465DiVA, id: diva2:1341695
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-758
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-13 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved

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Vidal, BrendaHedström, AnnelieBarraud, SylvieKärrman, ErikHerrmann, Inga
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