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Influence of ammonium salts and temperature on the yield, morphology and chemical structure of hydrothermally carbonized saccharides
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
2019 (English)In: SN Applied Sciences, ISSN 2523-3963, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the influence of (NH4)(2)SO4 and (NH4)(2)HPO4 as well as temperature is examined on the hydrothermal carbonization of glucose, fructose and sucrose. Increasing the temperature from 160 to 220 degrees C increased the yield of hydrothermal carbon for each saccharide for the (NH4)(2)SO4 solution, whereas (NH4)(2)HPO4 produced a yield that was independent of temperature. The addition of (NH4)(2)SO4 increased the yield obtained at 220 degrees C by 4.27, 7.03 and 2.01 wt% for glucose, fructose and sucrose over the baseline salt free solution, respectively. (NH4)(2)SO4 also increased the quantity of acid produced and the average size of the hydrothermal carbon spheres. Conversely, (NH4)(2)HPO4 produced carbon structures consisting of interlocked spherical shapes and produced almost no acidic products. XPS analysis revealed that (NH4)(2)SO4 incorporated nitrogen and sulfur into the hydrothermal structure, while (NH4)(2)HPO4 only allowed nitrogen to be incorporated. It was assessed that NH4(+) enhances the production of hydrothermal carbon, except in the presence of PO43-, which prevents the reaction from effectively forming hydrothermal carbon and organic acids. [GRAPHICS] .

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. Vol. 1, no 1, article id 54
Keywords [en]
Ammonium phosphate, Ammonium sulfate, Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose, FTIR, XPS
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161750DOI: 10.1007/s42452-018-0055-2ISI: 000473537800054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-161750DiVA, id: diva2:1339049
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Bio4EnergyAvailable from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved

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