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NT-proBNP and postoperative heart failure in surgery for aortic stenosis
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4173-8565
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
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2019 (English)In: Open heart, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 6, no 1, article id UNSP e001063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective Postoperative heart failure (PHF) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) may initially appear mild and transient but has serious long-term consequences. Methods to assess PHF are not well documented. We studied the association between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and PHF after AVR for AS.

Methods This is a prospective, observational, longitudinal study of 203 patients undergoing elective first-time AVR for AS. Plasma NT-proBNP was assessed at preoperative evaluation, the day before surgery, and the first (POD1) and third postoperative morning. A clinical endpoints committee, blinded to NT-proBNP results, used prespecified haemodynamic criteria to diagnose PHF. The mean follow-up was 8.6±1.1 years.

Results No patient with PHF (n=18) died within 30 days after surgery, but PHF was associated with poor long-term survival (HR 3.01, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.21, p=0.003). NT-proBNP was significantly higher in patients with PHF only on POD1 (6415 (3145–11 220) vs 2445 (1540–3855) ng/L, p<0.0001). NT-proBNP POD1 provided good discrimination of PHF (area under the curve=0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.91, p<0.0001; best cut-off 5290 ng/L: sensitivity 63%, specificity 85%). NT-proBNP POD1 ≥5290 ng/L identified which patients with PHF carried a risk of poor long-term survival, and PHF with NT-proBNP POD1 ≥ 5290 ng/L emerged as a risk factor for long-term mortality in the multivariable Cox regression (HR 6.20, 95% CI 2.72 to 14.1, p<0.0001).

Conclusions The serious long-term consequences associated with PHF after AVR for AS were confirmed. NT-proBNP level on POD1 aids in the assessment of PHF and identifies patients at particular risk of poor long-term survival.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019. Vol. 6, no 1, article id UNSP e001063
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159019DOI: 10.1136/openhrt-2019-001063ISI: 000471922200086PubMedID: 31218010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85066069325OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-159019DiVA, id: diva2:1338068
Note

Funding Agencies|Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden FORSS [12657, 23891, 159851, 311341]; County Council of Ostergotland, Sweden [LIO-610951, LIO 693091, LIO-796412]

Available from: 2019-07-19 Created: 2019-07-19 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. NT-proBNP as a marker of postoperative heart failure in adult cardiac surgery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NT-proBNP as a marker of postoperative heart failure in adult cardiac surgery
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Postoperative heart failure (PHF) remains the major cause of mortality after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, generally accepted diagnostic criteria for PHF are lacking. This may explain why the evidence for the efficacy and safety of current treatment of PHF with inotropes is insufficient. In cardiology practice N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is an established biomarker for heart failure. However, the association between NT-proBNP and PHF after cardiac surgery needs further clarification. Glutamate is a key intermediate in myocardial metabolism, which may improve myocardial tolerance to ischemia and facilitate post-ischemic recovery. Glutamate was associated with a reduced risk of developing severe PHF in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The aim of this thesis was to study the role of NT-proBNP for prediction and assessment of PHF in cardiac surgery (Paper I-III) and the impact of intravenous glutamate infusion on postoperative NTproBNP after CABG (Paper IV).

Paper I: We retrospectively studied the role of underlying heart disease for preoperative NT-proBNP in patients admitted for first time CABG (n=2226), aortic valve surgery (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) (n=406) and mitral valve surgery for mitral valve regurgitation (MR) (n=346) by adjusting for non-cardiac confounders (age, gender, obesity and renal function). The level of NT-proBNP in AS or MR was 1.67 (p<0.0001) and 1.41 times (p<0.0001) higher respectively than in coronary artery disease (CAD) after adjusting for confounders. Preoperative NT-proBNP was predictive of severe PHF in CAD and MR patients but less so in AS patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP emerged as an independent risk factor for severe PHF and postoperative mortality in CAD patients.

Paper II-III: We prospectively studied the association between postoperative NT-proBNP and PHF in two cohorts, patients undergoing AVR for AS (n=203) and patients undergoing isolated CABG for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the GLUTAMICS-trial (n=382). NT-proBNP was measured preoperatively, on the first (POD1) and third postoperative morning (POD3). An end-points committee blinded to NT-proBNP used prespecified criteria to diagnose PHF and its severity. After AVR for AS only NT-proBNP level on POD1 provided good discrimination of PHF. PHF with NT-proBNP POD1 ≥ 5290 ng•L-1 emerged as an independent risk factor for long-term mortality (Paper II). After isolated CABG for ACS both absolute postoperative levels on POD1 and POD3 and postoperative increases of NT-proBNP were associated with PHF and the levels reflected the severity of PHF (Paper III).

Paper IV: We prospectively studied the impact of intravenous glutamate infusion on postoperative NT-proBNP in a randomized double-blind study on patients undergoing CABG for ACS from the GLUTAMICS-trial (n=399). Patients were randomly allocated to intravenous infusion of L-glutamate (n=200) or saline (n=199). No effect of glutamate on postoperative NT-proBNP levels was detected in the whole cohort. According to post-hoc analysis glutamate was associated with less increase of NT-proBNP from preoperative level to POD3 and significantly lower absolute levels on POD3 among high risk patients with EuroSCORE II ≥4.15 (upper quartile).

Conclusion: Patients with AS or MR have higher preoperative NT-proBNP than CAD patients after adjusting for confounders. The predictive value of NT-proBNP with regard to severe PHF and postoperative mortality was confirmed in CAD patients. Postoperative NTproBNP may prove a useful tool for assessment of PHF after AVR for AS and isolated CABG. NT-proBNP POD1 identifies patients with PHF at risk of a poor long-term survival after AVR for AS. Intravenous infusion of glutamate may prevent or mitigate PHF in highrisk patients undergoing CABG but these results need to be confirmed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 79
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1712
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Surgery Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161324 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-161324 (DOI)9789179299699 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-28, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved

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