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Perioperativa åtgärder för att lindra och förebygga postoperativ halsont och heshet hos patienter som genomgått generell anestesi
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Halsont och heshet är några av de vanligaste postoperativa komplikationerna hos patienter som erhållit endotrakealtub eller larynxmask under generell anestesi. Syfte: Att kartlägga anestesisjuksköterskans perioperativa åtgärder för att förebygga och lindra patientens postoperativa halsont och heshet. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med deskriptiv design. Resultat sammanställdes utifrån 18 granskade artiklar av kvantitativ ansats, eftersökta i databaserna PudMed och Cinahl. Resultat: Litteraturöversikten visade flertalet åtgärder som kunde minska både incidens och svårighetsgrad av postoperativ halsont och heshet. En mindre endotrakealtub, användning av kontinuerlig tryckregulator, administrering av glukokortikoider och användning av larynxmask gav minskad incidens av halsont och heshet. Även videolaryngoskop, minskad kraft vid extraktion av ledare och vissa naturläkemedel visade sig minska incidensen. Åtgärderna visade på goda effekter i nära anslutning till operationen och inom första postoperativa dygnet, emellertid gav få artiklar resultat med bibehållen effekt över tid. Slutsats: Studien gav goda indikationer för åtgärder som kunde minska patienters förekomst av halsont och heshet och därigenom deras lidande. Resultatet visade på stor spridning vilket gjorde det svårt bedöma vilka åtgärder som var lämpliga att applicera i kliniken. Att minska storleken på endotrakealtuben och använda larynxmask när operationen tillåter var åtgärder som ansågs användbara. Även användning av glukokortikoider/antiinflammatoriska läkemedel samt att i större utsträckning utnyttja videolaryngoskopstekniken ansågs som adekvata åtgärder för att minska patientens lidande orsakat av postoperativ halsont och heshet.

Abstract [en]

Background: Sore throat and hoarseness are some of the most common postoperative complications in patients receiving endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask during general anesthesia. Aim: To investigate the anesthetic nurse's perioperative measures to prevent and alleviate the patient's suffering from postoperative sore throat and hoarseness. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. Results were compiled based on 18 articles of quantitative approaches, requested in the databases PudMed and Cinahl. Result: The literature review showed several measures that could reduce both incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat and hoarseness. A minor endotracheal tube, the use of continuous cuff pressure regulator, administration of glucocorticoids and use of laryngeal mask reduced the incidence of sore throat and hoarseness. Also, video laryngoscopes, reduced force when extracting stylet removal and some herbal medications seemed to give good results in reducing the incidence. The measures showed good effects close to surgery and within the first postoperative day, however, few studies gave results with retained effect over time. Conclusions: The study provided good indications for measures that could reduce patients' incidence of sore throat and hoarseness and thereby their suffering. The results showed a large spread, which made it difficult to assess which measures were suitable for application in the clinic. Reducing the size of the endotracheal tube and using the laryngeal mask when the operation allows was implications that considered useful. Also, the use of glucocorticoids / anti-inflammatory drugs and to a greater extent utilizing the video laryngoscope technique was considered adequate measures to reduce the suffering of patients caused by postoperative sore throat and hoarseness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 32
Keywords [en]
General anesthesia, Intubation, Postoperative complications, Hoarseness, Sore throat
Keywords [sv]
Generell anestesi, Intubation, Postoperativa komplikationer, Heshet, Halsont
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389344OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-389344DiVA, id: diva2:1336631
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Specialistsjuksköterskeprogrammet med inriktning mot anestesisjukvård
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved

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