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Calving controlled by melt-under-cutting: detailed calving styles revealed through time-lapse observations
Univ Edinburgh, Sch GeoSci, Inst Geog, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Arctic Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway;Univ York, Dept Environm & Geog, York, N Yorkshire, England.
Univ Oregon, Dept Earth Sci, Eugene, OR 97403 USA;Univ Maine, Climate Change Inst, Orono, ME USA.
Univ St Andrews, Dept Geog & Sustainable Dev, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Arctic Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
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2019 (English)In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 60, no 78, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a highly detailed study of calving dynamics at Tunabreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard. A time-lapse camera was trained on the terminus and programmed to capture images every 3 seconds over a 28-hour period in August 2015, producing a highly detailed record of 34 117 images from which 358 individual calving events were distinguished. Calving activity is characterised by frequent events (12.8 events h(-1)) that are small relative to the spectrum of calving events observed, demonstrating the prevalence of small-scale calving mechanisms. Five calving styles were observed, with a high proportion of calving events (82%) originating at, or above, the waterline. The tidal cycle plays a key role in the timing of calving events, with 68% occurring on the falling limb of the tide. Calving activity is concentrated where meltwater plumes surface at the glacier front, and a similar to 5 m undercut at the base of the glacier suggests that meltwater plumes encourage melt-under-cutting. We conclude that frontal ablation at Tunabreen may be paced by submarine melt rates, as suggested from similar observations at glaciers in Svalbard and Alaska. Using submarine melt rate to calculate frontal ablation would greatly simplify estimations of tidewater glacier losses in prognostic models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS , 2019. Vol. 60, no 78, p. 20-31
Keywords [en]
Arctic glaciology, glacier calving, ice dynamics, ice/ocean interactions
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387976DOI: 10.1017/aog.2018.28ISI: 000469785700004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-387976DiVA, id: diva2:1331567
Conference
International-Glaciological-Society Symposium on Timescales, Processes and Ice Sheet Changes, JUN 03-08, 2018, Buffalo, NY
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved

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