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An analysis of creating plastic material based on the microalgae Scenedesmus
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2019 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The microalgae Scenedesmus Bloom are grown in sewage environment and contains, among other things, polymers of saccharides. The polysaccharides can possibly be extracted and used for the manufacturing of plastic material. The algae have a strong cell wall, can grow fast in severe external conditions and shows good ability to capture carbon dioxide.

This study attempts to extract polymers from the algae, which will be used to create plastic films based on the microalgae. Analyses were made to determine which method gave the best results. The extraction methods that were performed were acid hydrothermal extraction, ultrasonic extraction and a combination of both methods. Before the extraction took place, preparation of the algae was performed. The preparation consisted of grinding the algae and washing the algae with acetone. The washing methods used in this study showed to not have a big influence and was therefore considered unnecessary. After the extraction, methods as dialysis and freezedrying were performed, for purification and drying of the extracted material. Finally, plastic films were made by a mixture of the extracted material and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt. Successful films were created from extracted material from washed algae that had undergone ultrasonic extraction and from unwashed algae that had undergone the acid hydrothermal extraction. The study showed that washed algae that had undergone ultrasonic extraction gave the best results. The created films were very brittle and without the addition of any additives, no useful applications could be found.

Abstract [sv]

Mikroalgen Scenedesmus Bloom odlas i avloppsmiljö och innehåller, bland annat, polymerer av sackarider. Polysackariderna kan eventuellt extraheras och användas för tillverkning av plastmaterial. Algerna har en stark cellvägg, kan växa i svåra yttre förhållanden och visar god förmåga på att fånga koldioxid.

I denna studie görs försök att extrahera polymerer från algerna för att sedan tillverka plastfilmer baserade på mikroalgerna. Analyser gjordes för att bestämma vilken metod som gav de bästa resultaten. De extraktionsmetoder som utfördes var hydrotermisk extraktion med syra, ultraljudsextraktion och en kombination av båda metoderna. Innan extraktionsmetoderna ägde rum, utfördes förbehandling på algerna, vilket bestod av malning och tvättning med aceton. De tvättningsmetoder som användes i denna studie visade sig ha en tämligen liten effekt och ansågs därför som onödiga. Efter extraktionsmetoderna utfördes även metoder som dialys och frystorkning för rening och torkning av det extraherade materialet från algerna. Slutligen framställdes plastfilmer genom en blandning av det extraherade materialet och karboximetylcellulosa. Lyckade filmer skapades från extraherat material från tvättad alg som genomgått ultraljudsextraktion och från otvättad alg som genomgått hydrotermisk extraktion med syra. Det visade sig att tvättad alg som genomgått ultraljudsextraktionen gav bäst resultat. Plastfilmerna var mycket spröda och utan tillsatser kunde inga direkta tillämpningar ses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 51
Series
TRITA-ITM-EX ; 2019:517
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254367OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-254367DiVA, id: diva2:1331302
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Materials Design and Engineering
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved

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