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Vårdpersonalens attityder till personer med psykisk ohälsa: En litteraturstudie
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Psykisk ohälsa är ett växande samhällsproblem. Attityder och upplevelse av stigmatisering inom hälso- och sjukvården kan påverka relationen i vårdmötet både positivt och negativt. För personer med psykisk ohälsa kan detta vara av särskilt betydelse.

Syfte: I denna studie var syftet att undersöka patienters upplevelser av attityder hos vårdpersonal samt patienters upplevelser av självstigmatisering.

Metod: En litteraturstudie med en kvalitativ ansats utfördes. Artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed, CINAHL och PsychInfo och 22 vetenskapliga originalartiklar valdes ut primärt. Efter granskning utgjordes ett definitivt urval av 13 artiklar. Hildegard Peplaus omvårdnasteori valdes som arbetets teoretiska referensram.

Resultat: Negativa attityder skildrades i interaktionen mellan patient och vårdpersonal i form av brist på visat intresse och upplevelser av att bli ifrågasatt, inte bli lyssnad på eller bli tagen seriös. Maktskillnader i relationen och diskriminering beskrevs även som negativa attityder. Positiva attityder innefattade stöd och empati, erfarenheter av att bli tagen seriös, lyssnad på och sedd bortom sjukdomen. Självstigmatisering framställdes som olika aspekter av en negativ självbild präglad av rädsla och skam, vilket medförde att deltagarna tvekade på sina förmågor. Undanhållande av sin psykiska ohälsa och upplevelser av att bli märkt med etiketter var också erfarenheter av självstigmatisering.

Slutsats: Verksamheter inom vården bör arbeta kontinuerligt med personalens bemötande och attityder för att skapa en god vårdande miljö för patienten. En miljö där patienten upplever goda attityder minimerar risken att denne drabbas av negativa konsekvenser, såsom en negativ självbild. För att också ge bästa möjliga omvårdnad bör patientens upplevelse tas i beaktande i omvårdnadsprocessen. 

Abstract [en]

Background: Mental illness is a growing societal problem. Attitudes and experiences of stigmatization in health care services can have both positive and negative effects on the patient-staff-relationship. For people with mental illness, this can be of particular importance. 

Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify patients’ experiences of attitudes among health care personnel, along with patients’ experiences of self-stigmatization.

Method: A litterary study based on qualitative research was formed. PubMed, CINAHL and Psychinfo were used as databases for the literary search and 22 scientific originalarticles were chosen. After further inspection, the final selection consisted of 13 articles. Hildegard Peplau’s theory of nursing was chosen as the theoretical reference frame.

Results: Negative attitudes were depicted in the patient-staff interaction in form of staff showing lack of interest and experiences of being questioned, not listened to or taken seriously. Power-imbalance and discrimination were also described as negative attitudes. Positive attitudes involved being given support and empathy, and experiences of being taken seriously, listened to and seen as beyond the disease. Self-stigma emerged in different aspects of negative self-image incused by fear and shame causing hesitancy of the participants’ abilities. The illness being withheld and feelings of being labeled also depicted experiences of self-stigma.

Conclusion: In order to create a good caring environment for the patient, health care services should work continuously with attitudes of health care personnel. An environment where patients experience positive attitudes, decreases the risk of they being affected by negative consequenses, such as a negative self-image. In addition, in order to yield best possible nursing, the patients’ experiences should be considered in the nursing process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 34
Keywords [en]
Mental illness, experience, attitudes, stigmatization, self-stigmatization
Keywords [sv]
Psykisk sjukdom, upplevelse, attityder, stigmatisering, självstigmatisering
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387474OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-387474DiVA, id: diva2:1329094
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved

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