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Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells
KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 422, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reactions in energy-optimized 25 Ah prismatic NMC/graphite lithium-ion cell, as a function of fast charging (1C-4C), are more complex than earlier described. There are no clear charging rate dependent trends but rather different mechanisms dominating at the different charging rates. Ageing processes are faster at 3 and 4C charging. Cycling with 3C-charging results in accelerated lithium plating but the 4C-charging results in extensive gas evolution that contribute significantly to the large cell impedance rise. Graphite exfoliation and accelerated lithium inventory loss point to the graphite electrode as the source of the gas evolution. The results are based on careful post-mortem analyses of electrodes using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM results show particle cracking independent of the charging rate used for the cycling. XPS and EIS generally indicate thicker surface film and larger impedance, respectively, towards the edge of the jellyrolls. For the intended application of a battery electric inner-city bus using this type of cell, charging rates of 3C and above are not feasible, considering battery lifetime. However, charging rates of 2C and below are too slow from the point of view of practical charging time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 422, p. 175-184
Keywords [en]
Fast charging, Lithium-ion battery, Ageing, Energy battery, Electric vehicle
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384064DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.02.095ISI: 000465365900021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-384064DiVA, id: diva2:1328105
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Swedish Energy Agency, P40501-1Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved

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